1] is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
which characterizes the equilibrium thermal radiation of the <<metallic plasma>> in the EE region.
where [rho]n = N/V, N is the number of molecules in the gas, V is the volume, a = 4[sigma]/c is the radiation constant, k is the Boltzmann constant, [sigma] is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
, T is the temperature, and c the speed of light.
p] is the heat capacity, h is the convection heat transfer coefficient, A is the surface area, T is the component temperature, [sigma] is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
, e is the emissivity, and [k.
2]), [sigma] is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
, and T is the temperature of the black body (K), which is equal to the observed temperature.
The thickness of the thermal boundary layer increases on increasing the radiation parameter because the intensity of the electromagnetic radiation in the medium decreases and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
of the medium increases.
and Kis mean absorption coeffient.
0] are the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
and base temperature constant, respectively, as given in Eq.
b] is the bulk temperature that is the average temperature of the nanofluid, [sigma]* and k* are Stefan-Boltzmann constant
and mean absorption coefficient, respectively.
volumetric coefficient of expansion with concentration [mu] coefficient of viscosity [upsilon] kinematic viscosity [sigma] Stefan-Boltzmann constant
EAM] (set to 1) is the nondimensional radiant view factor at the tympanic membrane and again denotes the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
amb] is the ambient temperature, R is a characteristic length, [epsilon] is the surface emissivity, and [sigma] is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
Coblentz was especially prolific, working to measure the Stefan-Boltzmann constant
(123) using an early precursor for absolute detectors (121).