Stenka Razin

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Razin, Stenka

(stĕng`kä rä`zēn), d. 1671, Don CossackDon Cossacks,
Cossack settlers (see Cossacks) who in the 16th cent. founded the virtually independent republic of the Don Cossacks on the fertile steppes along the lower course of the Don River. Novocherkassk was their chief town.
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 leader, head of the peasant revolt of 1670. As commander of a band of propertyless Don Cossacks, he raided and pillaged (1667–69) through the lower Volga valley and across the Caspian Sea. On his return (1670) to the Don, Razin rebelled against the authority of the czar. His force of some 7,000 men took Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd), Astrakhan, Saratov, and Samara, and was joined by serfs, peasants, and non-Russian tribes of the middle and lower Volga region. However, he was defeated by government troops at Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk) and fled to the Don, where the propertied Cossacks delivered him to the government. Razin was executed at Moscow. His exploits have long been celebrated in song and legend.
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References in classic literature ?
Have you noticed that it is the most civilised gentlemen who have been the subtlest slaughterers, to whom the Attilas and Stenka Razins could not hold a candle, and if they are not so conspicuous as the Attilas and Stenka Razins it is simply because they are so often met with, are so ordinary and have become so familiar to us.
1671 Rebel Cossack leader Stenka Razin is executed by quartering in Moscow's Red Square.
The song hadn't even been released yet, but its melody was based on an old Russian folk song called Stenka Razin. The music ceased as Millie approached her Uncle Jack's house, and in a low refined voice the Devil said: "Tell Uncle Jack I'm here.
How can I live if Peter I is great, and Bulavin, who led a revolt against him in Astrakhan, is glorious; if Peter's father Alexei Romanov is clever and Stenka Razin, bandit-leader of the Cossacks against his rule, is also a hero?
In his own discussions, he leaves open the possibility that recordings exist of Furtwangler conducting Alexander Glazunov's Stenka Razin, Antonin Dvorak's New World Symphony, and the Overture to Eugene d'Albert's Tiefland.
Other byliny may relate events from the reigns of Ivan the Terrible or Peter the Great, or deal with the Cossack rebels Stenka Razin and Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachov.
Magnus de la Gardie sortied (August), and he retreated, with the Swedes hot on his trail; further Swedish victories (1657) and the defeat of a renewed Russian offensive (1658) convinced Alexis that he should conclude a three years' truce with Sweden and renew the war with Poland (1658); although Alexis took no active role in the campaigns, the war with Poland dragged on for eight years, with Russian armies under Princes Dolgoruki, Chowansky, and Trubetskoi unable to gain any lasting advantage (1658-1667); in the end, Russia gained Smolensk, Kiev, and the lands east of the Dnepr at the treaty of Andrusovo (January 1667); the remainder of Alexis' reign was relatively peaceful, disturbed only by the savage revolt of Stenka Razin (1667-1671), and he died in Moscow (February 8, 1676).