Stenosis


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stenosis

[stə′nō·səs]
(medicine)
Constriction or narrowing, as of the heart or blood vessels.

Stenosis

 

the narrowing of a physiological opening or the lumen of a tubular organ. Examples of the former include stenosis of the left atrioventricular orifice of the heart, or mitral stenosis. Examples of the latter include stenosis of the intestine, trachea, bronchi, arteries, or pylorus of the stomach (pylorostenosis).

Stenoses may be congenital (developmental anomalies) or acquired, in which case they may be caused by a tumor or by scarring following an inflammatory process, ulcer, or trauma. Organic strictures are distinguished from functional stenoses, which result from a spasm of the musculature. Severe stenosis hampers the movement of blood, food, and air, and consequently the musculature of the organ located above the stenosis hypertrophies (compensated stenosis). Later, muscle tone decreases, the lumen of the organ above the stricture enlarges substantially, and the movement through the narrowed part becomes disrupted (decompensated stenosis).

Stenosis is treated surgically by enlarging the affected orifice, as in some cases of heart disease, by passing a bougie through the structure involved, by excising the constricted part, or by performing plastic surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
The interventional bronchoscopy treatment indications for scarring airway stenosis patients were those who could not receive surgery or those who could receive surgery but refused and prefer interventional bronchoscopy treatment.
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of central venous stenosis provides excellent immediate results but long term patency reported to be 10-30% at one year and restenosis were reported.
Pain caused by both types of stenosis should respond to spinal flexion (bending) exercises, such as the lower-back stretch, seen below in Moves of the Month, because bending opens up the compressed spaces.
The difference in pericardial fat volume with the presence of coronary artery disease was statistically tested using independent student t-test for non-normal distribution and one-way ANOVA test was used to test the differences of pericardial fat volume with different grades of stenosis in each coronary artery.
KEY WORDS: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), Core stability exercises (CSE), Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA), Self-reported walking distance.
Balloon valvuloplasty is indicated for moderate to severe aortic stenosis to prevent progressive left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction and risk of syncope or sudden death9.
It can also diagnose disc herniation and spinal stenosis and is superior to radiographs in detecting metastases and infection (Figures 8 and 9).
Geographically, North America is expected to dominate the global spinal stenosis market followed by Europe owing to increase in number of aging population.
Kapadia adds that a measurement of B-type natriuretic-peptide (BNP) is also useful in determining whether aortic valve stenosis is developing into heart failure.
These two latter characteristics justify their cautious use in our center and by others for the treatment of benign posttransplant stenosis [4, 9, 10], especially when there is a risk of bronchial breaking.
That's been especially true with regard to aortic stenosis (AS), the cardiologist said.