Stenosis


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stenosis

[stə′nō·səs]
(medicine)
Constriction or narrowing, as of the heart or blood vessels.

Stenosis

 

the narrowing of a physiological opening or the lumen of a tubular organ. Examples of the former include stenosis of the left atrioventricular orifice of the heart, or mitral stenosis. Examples of the latter include stenosis of the intestine, trachea, bronchi, arteries, or pylorus of the stomach (pylorostenosis).

Stenoses may be congenital (developmental anomalies) or acquired, in which case they may be caused by a tumor or by scarring following an inflammatory process, ulcer, or trauma. Organic strictures are distinguished from functional stenoses, which result from a spasm of the musculature. Severe stenosis hampers the movement of blood, food, and air, and consequently the musculature of the organ located above the stenosis hypertrophies (compensated stenosis). Later, muscle tone decreases, the lumen of the organ above the stricture enlarges substantially, and the movement through the narrowed part becomes disrupted (decompensated stenosis).

Stenosis is treated surgically by enlarging the affected orifice, as in some cases of heart disease, by passing a bougie through the structure involved, by excising the constricted part, or by performing plastic surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
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Patients with moderate stenosis on coronary CTA who had normal FFRCT were deemed at low risk of heart attack and received drugs alone, said Dr Norgaard.
Percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy (PMBV) has been practiced in patients with stage C2 and stage D mitral stenosis patients in place of closed and open surgical mitral valvotomy and mitral valve replacement since 1984.
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2013 with clinical features and neuroimaging suggestive of stroke with carotid artery stenosis by Carotid Doppler were enrolled for the study and were further considered for Transcranial Doppler.
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In most cases, it has been attributed to the use of ostial cannulation for antegrade cardioplegia during surgery, which can cause a mechanical injury to the coronary ostium resulting in hyperplastic reaction and stenosis [5, 7, 8].
PPG can be used to evaluate atherosclerosis [5, 6], arterial stenosis [7-10], arterial properties [2, 11-13], hypertension [10, 12], diabetes mellitus [14], and cardiovascular risk factors [15].