Stephen Báthory

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Stephen Báthory

(bä`tôrĭ), Pol. Stefan Batory, 1533–86, king of Poland (1575–86), prince of Transylvania (1571–75), son of Stephen BáthoryBáthory
, Pol. Batory, Hungarian noble family. Stephen Báthory, 1477–1534, a loyal adherent of John I of Hungary (John Zápolya), was made (1529) voivode [governor] of Transylvania.
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 (1477–1534). He was elected to succeed John II as prince of Transylvania. In Poland, he was elected by a majority to succeed Henry of Valois, who had left Poland in 1574 to rule France as Henry IIIHenry III,
1551–89, king of France (1574–89); son of King Henry II and Catherine de' Medici. He succeeded his brother, Charles IX. As a leader of the royal army in the Wars of Religion (see Religion, Wars of) against the French Protestants, or Huguenots, Henry, then
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. A minority voted for Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian IIMaximilian II,
1527–76, Holy Roman emperor (1564–76), king of Bohemia (1562–76) and of Hungary (1563–76), son and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I.
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, who died before he could make good his claim. As had been stipulated by the Polish diet, Stephen married Anna, daughter of Sigismund IISigismund II
or Sigismund Augustus,
1520–72, king of Poland (1548–72). Crowned in 1530 to assure his succession, he assumed the royal functions at the death of his father, Sigismund I.
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, the last Jagiello king of Poland. To his brother, Christopher Báthory, he gave Transylvania. With his chancellor, Jan ZamojskiZamojski or Zamoyski, Jan
, 1542–1605, Polish statesman, general, and author. He championed the rights of the lesser nobility; after the extinction (1572) of the Jagiello dynasty, he used his influence to restrict
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, Stephen fought several successful campaigns against Ivan IVIvan IV
or Ivan the Terrible,
1530–84, grand duke of Moscow (1533–84), the first Russian ruler to assume formally the title of czar. Early Reign

Ivan succeeded his father Vasily III, who died in 1533, under the regency of his mother.
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 of Russia in the lengthy war for the succession to LivoniaLivonia
, region and former Russian province, comprising present Estonia and parts of Latvia (Vidzeme and Latgale). It borders on the Baltic Sea and its arms, the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland, in the west and the north and extends E to Lake Peipus (Chudskoye) and the
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. Peace was made in 1582 through papal mediation, and Poland retained Polotsk and its part of Livonia. Toward the end of his reign Stephen Báthory planned a Christian alliance against the Ottomans. He also schemed to make Russia a vassal state of Poland—a project that he considered a necessary step for his anti-Ottoman crusade. He supported the Society of Jesus (see Jesus, Society ofJesus, Society of,
religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. Its members are called Jesuits. St. Ignatius of Loyola, its founder, named it Compañia de Jesús [Span.,=(military) company of Jesus]; in Latin it is Societas Jesu (abbr. S.J.).
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) in Poland in an attempt to foster the Catholic Reform, and he effected useful judiciary reforms. After his death Sigismund III, a Swedish nephew of Sigismund IISigismund II
or Sigismund Augustus,
1520–72, king of Poland (1548–72). Crowned in 1530 to assure his succession, he assumed the royal functions at the death of his father, Sigismund I.
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, was elected king.
References in periodicals archive ?
On 6 June 1574, Stephen Bathory, prince of Transylvania (and king of Poland after 1576), issued in Alba Iulia a document (known to Romanian historiography for more than a century) whereby "Friar Christopher (Hristofor), the priest" was appointed episcopum Valachorum presbyterorum transsilvanensium, romanam videlicet seu graecam religionem profitencium ("bishop of the Wallachian Transylvanian priests who follow the Roman, that is, the Greek faith").
He states that in Transylvania the descendants of the Romans are the Wallachians (az Olahok), who refer to themselves as Romans (Romanusok) (20) The second testimony, originating in the Transylvanian princely circle, belongs to Wolfgang Kowachoczy, the humanist chancellor of Stephen Bathory (prince of Transylvania and king of Poland).
Even if such documents existed, the group in question would not be called "Roman" in the sense of "Catholic." At that time, the Uniate Byzantines or those who were expected to be Uniate (living in other parts of Europe) were never referred to as "Romans." Fourthly, at the time of the strict Council of Trent (adjourned in 1564), the Catholic Prince Stephen Bathory could not have placed under Orthodox jurisdiction a hypothetical group of Romanian Catholics.
By 1574, the sui generis political and religious system of Transylvania, with its "three nations and four religions," had been fully completed and recognized by Prince Stephen Bathory. The alleged group of Romanians belonging to the "Roman faith" (meaning Catholic, under whatever form) would have belonged to one of the privileged groups, more precisely to the Catholics, and would not have been listed alongside the Romanian "Greek" (Orthodox) subjects, who were not among the "accepted" faiths.
A Saxon humanist, Leonhard Uncius, poet laureate at the court of Prince and then King Stephen Bathory, used the name Dacia for all three countries--Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia--and spoke about the noble origin of the Romanians, who are descended from the Romans.
The advance and consolidation of the Reformation in Transylvania was checked or rather altered by an unexpected factor: the rise to the supreme position of power of a Catholic nobleman, Stephen Bathory (1571-1586).