Stephen II

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Stephen II,

d. 757, pope (752–57), successor of Pope St. ZachariasZacharias or Zachary, Saint
, pope (741–52), a Calabrian Greek; successor of St. Gregory III. He was the first pope after Gregory the Great not to seek confirmation of his election from the Byzantine emperor.
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. When Rome was threatened by the Lombard king Aistulf, Stephen went to Gaul and appealed to Pepin the ShortPepin the Short
(Pepin III), c.714–768, first Carolingian king of the Franks (751–68), son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne. Succeeding his father as mayor of the palace (741), he ruled Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence, while his brother Carloman (d.
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 for help. He became the first pope to cross the Alps. Pepin responded and defeated (754 and 756) Aistulf and restored the lost papal territories. Pepin rejected the demands of the Byzantine emperor for the return of the exarchate RavennaRavenna
, city (1991 pop. 135,844), capital of Ravenna prov., in Emilia-Romagna, N central Italy, near the Adriatic Sea (with which it is connected by a canal). It is an agricultural market, canal port, and an important industrial center.
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, which claimed temporal sovereignty over Rome. Instead, Pepin, in the so-called Act of Donation, ceded all the territories of the duchy of Rome to the papacy, thus laying the basis for the Papal States. In 755, Stephen renewed the coronation of Pepin and gave him and his two sons the title Patrician of the Romans (Patricius Romanorum). He was succeeded by Paul IPaul I,
1754–1801, czar of Russia (1796–1801), son and successor of Catherine II. His mother disliked him intensely and sought on several occasions to change the succession to his disadvantage.
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. Another Stephen II, elected pope in 752 but who died before his coronation, was officially dropped from the list of popes in 1959.
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and her husband Frank Visgatis of Sutton; one sister, Edna Munroe of Smithtown, NY and her cousin whom she considered a sister, Joan Wynja and her husband Milton of Port Charlotte, FL., 10 grandchildren, Stephen II, Breanna, Megan, Samantha, Aaron, Jenna, Christian, Nicholas, Luke, and Matthew and many nieces, nephews, cousins and friends of all ages.
Stephen II (752) is omitted from some lists as he was elected but died before being consecrated.
In 753 Pope Stephen II turned to Pippin, the first Carolingian king of the Franks, for protection against the depredations of the Lombards in Italy.
Paul I, the pope who sent Simeon, the Roman songmaster, to teach Franks at Rouen, was the brother of Pope Stephen II with whom Pippin had negotiated at Ponthion in 754.
The towers she associates with the residence of Bishop Stephen II (766-94) have always been understood to have been attached or adjacent to the older double cathedral complex (see the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century studies of Sersale, Chioccarello, and Mazzocchi), and not part of the episcopal palace (one of these towers would appear to have been rebuilt by Archbishop Peter of Sorrento in the 1230s, and the other almost certainly was reconstructed as the Minutolo Chapel in ca.
The vast majority of those of Stephen II, Paul I, and Hadrian I survive only in a single manuscript of the Codex Carolinus prepared on Charlemagne's command in 791.
In 751 Charles Martel's son Pepin III (714?-768) persuaded Pope Stephen II (who held the seat from 752 to 757) to declare him king of the Frankish realm.
Became king of the Lombards (749); conquered the nominally Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna (751); next directed his energies toward the conquest of Rome, and by 753 was threatening the city itself; was defeated at the battle of Mount Cenis (754) by a Frankish army under Pepin III the Short, sent to rescue Pope Stephen II and Rome; was besieged in Pavia; made peace with Pepin and promised to restore the conquered lands, but resumed his aggressions as soon as Pepin left, and besieged Rome (January-April 756); besieged again in Pavia when Pepin led another army into Italy, he was forced to pay tribute and to hand his conquests over to Pepin, who gave them to Pope Stephen II; died shortly after (January 757?).
Salisbury, who died in 1851, lived there with her husband, Stephen Salisbury I, and son, Stephen II, until he was grown and moved into a larger mansion nearby.
The standard history of Carolingian liturgical reform usually begins in 754, when Pope Stephen II traveled to the Frankish kingdom to anoint Pepin king and to confirm their alliance against the Lombards.