Stillbirth


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Related to Stillbirth: miscarriage

stillbirth

[′stil‚bərth]
(medicine)
Birth of a dead infant.

Stillbirth

 

the birth of a dead fetus after 28 weeks of pregnancy; the fetus does not breathe after birth. Such a fetus is no less than 35 cm long and weighs no less than 1,000 g. As a statistical index, stillbirth is the ratio of the number of stillbirths to 1,000 births. Smaller fetuses of lower weight are late abortions.

There are several types of stillbirth: prenatal stillbirth, when the death of the fetus occurs before the onset of labor (after 28 weeks of pregnancy); intranatal stillbirth, when the fetus dies during birth; and postnatal stillbirth, when the fetus is born with a heartbeat, but extrauterine respiration is not established.

Stillbirth is most often observed in women who suffer from chronic infections (brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, listerellosis, tuberculosis, syphilis) and in women who had acute infections during pregnancy (angina, influenza, pneumonia). Stillbirth may result from toxemia of pregnancy, cardiovascular disease, or Rh incompatibility. Stillbirth may also result from abnormalities in fetal development, as well as from placental presentation, premature detachment of the placenta, birth complications accompanied by uterine inertia, premature bursting of the amniotic membrane, or transverse or breech presentation of the fetus. Other causes of stillbirth may be the delivery of an unusually large fetus (5,000 g or more), a narrow pelvis in the mother, improper insertion of the head of the fetus, presentation and prolapse of the umbilical cord, or coiling of the umbilical cord around the neck and trunk of the fetus.

The prevention of stillbirths is ensured by systematic care of pregnant women, by timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases of pregnancy and complicated birth, and by strict observance of the measures for protection of the mother’s health, that is, by observing all aspects of prenatal care.

REFERENCES

Zhordania, I. F. Uchebnik akusherstva, 4th ed. Moscow, 1964.
Persianinov, L. S. “O probleme asfiksii ploda i novorozhdennogo.” In AntenataVnaia okhrana ploda. Moscow, 1968.
Petrov-Maslakov, M. A., and I. I. Klimets. PerinataVnaia smertnost’ Leningrad, 1965.

O. K. NIKONCHIK

References in periodicals archive ?
Noting that the term stillbirth describes babies with no heart beat or spontaneous respiration at birth, who do not respond to resuscitation for 20 minutes, who have completed [greater than or equal to]22 GWs, and/or weigh [greater than or equal to]500 g (10), during this study, it was noted that death certificate forms were also completed for fetuses aged 20 GW and below in the province of Istanbul, and these fetuses were buried in cemeteries; there is no clear period for stillbirths in the Health Legislation in our country.
Keywords: Twin pregnancy, Stillbirth, Prospective risk, Chorionicity, Perinatal morbidity, Mortality.
The increase in stillbirths was more than counterbalanced by a larger drop in infant deaths during the same period.
The authors searched major databases for studies on twin pregnancies that reported rates of stillbirth as well as neonatal outcomes (neonatal mortality was defined as death up to 28 days after delivery).
Beyond that, "the risks of stillbirth significantly outweighed the risk of neonatal death from delivery," with a 1-week delay in delivery (to 38 weeks' gestation) leading to an additional 8.
10 The recurrence risk for stillbirth is twofold to tenfold increase in the next pregnancy.
Even when factors such as the age of the mother and social deprivation were taken into account, networks covering large parts of central, northwest and north-east England had a stillbirth rate and death rate in the first 28 days of life that was more than ten per cent higher than the UK average.
No stillbirth rate data were available for 38 countries, and nine countries--all in Sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia--had only subnational data.
1 WHO has reported stillbirth as fifth leading cause of death worldwide and represent a commonest preventable devastating pregnancy outcome.
It was moved by Shaista Pervaiz Malik and Asiya Naz Tanoli regarding high stillbirth rate and deaths of thousands of women due to child birth complications in the country.
The Health Quality & Safety Commissions Perinatal and Maternal Mortality Review Committee (PMMRC) is welcoming a new series, published by UK medical journal Lancet, focusing on preventable stillbirths.
Yet, one study linked a policy in a large hospital group of avoiding such optional, or elective, deliveries before 39 weeks to an increase in stillbirths in its patients.