Stillbirth


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Related to Stillbirth: miscarriage

stillbirth

[′stil‚bərth]
(medicine)
Birth of a dead infant.

Stillbirth

 

the birth of a dead fetus after 28 weeks of pregnancy; the fetus does not breathe after birth. Such a fetus is no less than 35 cm long and weighs no less than 1,000 g. As a statistical index, stillbirth is the ratio of the number of stillbirths to 1,000 births. Smaller fetuses of lower weight are late abortions.

There are several types of stillbirth: prenatal stillbirth, when the death of the fetus occurs before the onset of labor (after 28 weeks of pregnancy); intranatal stillbirth, when the fetus dies during birth; and postnatal stillbirth, when the fetus is born with a heartbeat, but extrauterine respiration is not established.

Stillbirth is most often observed in women who suffer from chronic infections (brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, listerellosis, tuberculosis, syphilis) and in women who had acute infections during pregnancy (angina, influenza, pneumonia). Stillbirth may result from toxemia of pregnancy, cardiovascular disease, or Rh incompatibility. Stillbirth may also result from abnormalities in fetal development, as well as from placental presentation, premature detachment of the placenta, birth complications accompanied by uterine inertia, premature bursting of the amniotic membrane, or transverse or breech presentation of the fetus. Other causes of stillbirth may be the delivery of an unusually large fetus (5,000 g or more), a narrow pelvis in the mother, improper insertion of the head of the fetus, presentation and prolapse of the umbilical cord, or coiling of the umbilical cord around the neck and trunk of the fetus.

The prevention of stillbirths is ensured by systematic care of pregnant women, by timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases of pregnancy and complicated birth, and by strict observance of the measures for protection of the mother’s health, that is, by observing all aspects of prenatal care.

REFERENCES

Zhordania, I. F. Uchebnik akusherstva, 4th ed. Moscow, 1964.
Persianinov, L. S. “O probleme asfiksii ploda i novorozhdennogo.” In AntenataVnaia okhrana ploda. Moscow, 1968.
Petrov-Maslakov, M. A., and I. I. Klimets. PerinataVnaia smertnost’ Leningrad, 1965.

O. K. NIKONCHIK

References in periodicals archive ?
"Stillbirth rate remains high at term in women with diabetes in our population, and until more accurate prediction of at-risk pregnancies is available, earlier delivery may be considered an attractive option," the authors write.
The study published in the medical journal Diabetologia earlier this week stated that obesity and high blood sugar are likely to increase the risk of stillbirth in pregnant women with diabetes.
An increase in bile acid is associated with an increased risk of stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal unit admission.
The causes of stillbirth are many and require extensive investigation, including an autopsy of the baby to identify the cause.
developing best practice, culturally appropriate resources for health professionals and parents and families, including more intensive support options for bereaved parents and families following stillbirth
"There is a need to assess the acceptability of early delivery at term to parents and healthcare providers to avoid the small risk of stillbirth."
That's because the absolute risk of stillbirth is still very low -- equivalent to one additional stillbirth for every 1,449 pregnancies, compared to delivering at 40 weeks.
Stillbirth cases were excluded if the gestational age was unknown (n=20 786, 46.9%) or if the estimated age was considered 'uncertain' (n=8 750, 19.7%).
Clea Harmer, chief executive of Sands, a stillbirth and neonatal death charity, said the strategy "will protect babies' lives and ensure fewer families suffer grief and loss".
Although several risk factors have been identified as being responsible, many cases of stillbirth remain unexplained.
"Stillbirth and miscarriage are obviously devastating for the parents and many aspects remain unexplained."
This study of 851 bereaved mothers and 2,257 women with ongoing pregnancy revealed going to sleep lying on the back from 28 weeks of pregnancy increased the risk of stillbirth by 2.6 times.