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Birth of a dead infant.



the birth of a dead fetus after 28 weeks of pregnancy; the fetus does not breathe after birth. Such a fetus is no less than 35 cm long and weighs no less than 1,000 g. As a statistical index, stillbirth is the ratio of the number of stillbirths to 1,000 births. Smaller fetuses of lower weight are late abortions.

There are several types of stillbirth: prenatal stillbirth, when the death of the fetus occurs before the onset of labor (after 28 weeks of pregnancy); intranatal stillbirth, when the fetus dies during birth; and postnatal stillbirth, when the fetus is born with a heartbeat, but extrauterine respiration is not established.

Stillbirth is most often observed in women who suffer from chronic infections (brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, listerellosis, tuberculosis, syphilis) and in women who had acute infections during pregnancy (angina, influenza, pneumonia). Stillbirth may result from toxemia of pregnancy, cardiovascular disease, or Rh incompatibility. Stillbirth may also result from abnormalities in fetal development, as well as from placental presentation, premature detachment of the placenta, birth complications accompanied by uterine inertia, premature bursting of the amniotic membrane, or transverse or breech presentation of the fetus. Other causes of stillbirth may be the delivery of an unusually large fetus (5,000 g or more), a narrow pelvis in the mother, improper insertion of the head of the fetus, presentation and prolapse of the umbilical cord, or coiling of the umbilical cord around the neck and trunk of the fetus.

The prevention of stillbirths is ensured by systematic care of pregnant women, by timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases of pregnancy and complicated birth, and by strict observance of the measures for protection of the mother’s health, that is, by observing all aspects of prenatal care.


Zhordania, I. F. Uchebnik akusherstva, 4th ed. Moscow, 1964.
Persianinov, L. S. “O probleme asfiksii ploda i novorozhdennogo.” In AntenataVnaia okhrana ploda. Moscow, 1968.
Petrov-Maslakov, M. A., and I. I. Klimets. PerinataVnaia smertnost’ Leningrad, 1965.


References in periodicals archive ?
In 2013 the UK had one of the highest rates of stillbirth in Europe at 4.
The rate at which First Nations women experienced stillbirths over those 10 years had not changed.
Nearly three million third- trimester stillbirths occur worldwide every year and 98 per cent of these take place in low- income and middle- income countries.
The week is supported by a number of pregnancy loss and baby loss charities, including the Lullaby Trust, the Miscarriage Association, and the stillbirth and neonatal death charity Sands.
Britain's infant mortality rate is one of the highest in western Europe, and Francine stresses that while SIDS deaths have reduced by 70% over the last 25 years, largely due to campaigns run by the charity and the Government about reducing the risk and safer sleep: "We haven't made much inroad into stillbirth and neonatal death.
The researchers lacked data on maternal body mass index, smoking status, and fertility treatment, as well as causes of stillbirth, maternally requested C-sections, and the gestational ages of the stillbirths and miscarriages.
The researchers calculated the increased risk of stillbirth for each of the substances they examined.
If we know how much oxygen the baby is getting we can deliver pregnancies prior to the oxygen levels becoming very low and the baby succumbing to stillbirths," Dr Clare Whitehead, a lead researcher, (http://www.
In up to 60% of third-trimester stillbirths, the causes of death were directly attributed to either maternal conditions, such as genetic blood disorders or preeclampsia, or were undetermined even after a thorough postmortem evaluation (Lawn et al.
Stillbirth rates only applied to fetuses [greater than or equal to] 1 000 g, as stillbirths of fetuses weighing <1 000 g were regarded as late abortions.
The debate followed a report by the Assembly's Health and Social Care Committee in February which said more must be done to help to reduce the number of stillbirths in Wales, after figures showed the rate has barely changed since the early 1990s.
Furthermore, unexplained stillbirths, (5,7-9) and stillbirths secondary to placental abruption, obstetrical complications, asphyxia, (5,9) slow fetal growth, maternal diseases,5 and non-chromosomal congenital anomalies, (5,10) are more strongly associated with maternal education, but the lack of data on time trends makes it difficult to determine whether associations vary over time.