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Birth of a dead infant.



the birth of a dead fetus after 28 weeks of pregnancy; the fetus does not breathe after birth. Such a fetus is no less than 35 cm long and weighs no less than 1,000 g. As a statistical index, stillbirth is the ratio of the number of stillbirths to 1,000 births. Smaller fetuses of lower weight are late abortions.

There are several types of stillbirth: prenatal stillbirth, when the death of the fetus occurs before the onset of labor (after 28 weeks of pregnancy); intranatal stillbirth, when the fetus dies during birth; and postnatal stillbirth, when the fetus is born with a heartbeat, but extrauterine respiration is not established.

Stillbirth is most often observed in women who suffer from chronic infections (brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, listerellosis, tuberculosis, syphilis) and in women who had acute infections during pregnancy (angina, influenza, pneumonia). Stillbirth may result from toxemia of pregnancy, cardiovascular disease, or Rh incompatibility. Stillbirth may also result from abnormalities in fetal development, as well as from placental presentation, premature detachment of the placenta, birth complications accompanied by uterine inertia, premature bursting of the amniotic membrane, or transverse or breech presentation of the fetus. Other causes of stillbirth may be the delivery of an unusually large fetus (5,000 g or more), a narrow pelvis in the mother, improper insertion of the head of the fetus, presentation and prolapse of the umbilical cord, or coiling of the umbilical cord around the neck and trunk of the fetus.

The prevention of stillbirths is ensured by systematic care of pregnant women, by timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases of pregnancy and complicated birth, and by strict observance of the measures for protection of the mother’s health, that is, by observing all aspects of prenatal care.


Zhordania, I. F. Uchebnik akusherstva, 4th ed. Moscow, 1964.
Persianinov, L. S. “O probleme asfiksii ploda i novorozhdennogo.” In AntenataVnaia okhrana ploda. Moscow, 1968.
Petrov-Maslakov, M. A., and I. I. Klimets. PerinataVnaia smertnost’ Leningrad, 1965.


References in periodicals archive ?
Global estimates of intrapartum stillbirths and intrapartum related neonatal deaths.
There were no cases of stillbirth beyond 30 and 34 weeks in monochorionic and dichorionic twins, respectively.
Concurrent with the rise in 39-week births and a drop in neonates with shorter gestation times, the incidence of stillbirths rose from 9.
This large systematic review offers comprehensive data on twin pregnancy stillbirths and neonatal outcomes, but this strength must be weighed against the study's many limitations
Out of them 660 cases were of perinatal deaths (557 stillbirths and 103 early neonatal deaths) giving a perinatal mortality rate 140/1000 deliveries.
One in every 200 babies is stillborn in the UK and there is around a 25 per cent variation in stillbirth rates across England, according to NHS figures.
The study aimed to improve on a 2009 World Health Organization analysis of stillbirth by increasing both the amount and the quality of data.
To determine the socio-demographic characteristics of families with stillbirths.
In New Zealand, stillbirth rates at a gestation of 3741 weeks or more have reduced over the seven years since the PMMRCs national perinatal audit began.
A higher proportion of stillbirths in non-Hispanic black women, compared with non-Hispanic white women and Hispanic women was associated with obstetric complications (43.
When examining the statistics on a national scale, we did not see a commensurate increase in stillbirths nationally after the recommendation went into effect.
A high level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was associated with increased stillbirth in women who didn't receive prenatal levothyroxine, Peter N.