Stokely Carmichael

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Carmichael, Stokely,

1941–98, African-American social activist, b. Trinidad. He lived in New York City from 1952 and graduated from Howard Univ. in 1964. Carmichael participated in the Congress of Racial Equality's "freedom rides" in 1961, and by 1964 was a field organizer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Alabama. As SNCC chair in 1966, he ejected more moderate leaders and set off a storm of controversy by calling for "black power," a concept he elaborated in a 1967 book (with C. Hamilton). He was also an anti-Vietnam War activist, and railed against both racial and economic injustice. His increasingly separatist politics isolated Carmichael from most of the civil-rightscivil rights,
rights that a nation's inhabitants enjoy by law. The term is broader than "political rights," which refer only to rights devolving from the franchise and are held usually only by a citizen, and unlike "natural rights," civil rights have a legal as well as a
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 movement. He immigrated to Guinea in 1969 and spent the rest of his life there, calling himself a pan-African revolutionary but largely relegated to the political fringe. He changed his name to Kwame Ture, and was married briefly to the singer Miriam MakebaMakeba, Miriam
, 1932–2008, South African singer. She became the first black South African to achieve international fame and she played a fundamental role in introducing African music to the West.
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. His memoir Ready for Revolution was posthumously published in 2003.


See biography by P. E. Joseph (2014).

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Carmichael, Stokely

(1941–  ) radical activist; born in Trinidad. A carpenter's son, he emigrated to America (1952) and was shocked by the racism he encountered. Involved in civil rights while attending Howard University (1960–64), he was elected leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and changed the group's focus from integration to "black liberation." Gifted, handsome, and articulate, he popularized the phrase "black power" and as a Black Panther came to symbolize black violence to many whites. He came to favor forging alliances with radical whites and resigned from the Panthers over this approach (1968). He and his wife, South African singer Miriam Makeba, moved to Guinea (1969), where he supported Pan-Africanism. He eventually returned to the U.S.A., but he dropped out of all civil rights activities.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
There are a few minor quibbles, such as his error that Stokely Carmichael, and not Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, founded the Black Panther Party.
Running for student office in 1982 at Howard University -- the school that nurtured Thurgood Marshall, Toni Morrison and Stokely Carmichael -- was no joke.
Along the way, she added numerous documents--many of them not found elsewhere--and correspondence related to organizations such as the Black Working Group and the Public Service Alliance of Canada (PSAC) and individuals like Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael).
He spoke at length with luminaries such as James Baldwin, Martin Luther King Jr., Stokely Carmichael, Ralph Ellison, and Roy Wilkins, eliciting reflections and frank assessments of race in America and the possibilities for meaningful change.
Dit is in die VSA dat een van die deurlopende temas van Kgotsitsile se poesie beslag kry, die verwysing na die swart Amerikaanse Civil Rights-beweging met sy prominente figure soos onder meer Malcolm X, Kwame Toure (Stokely Carmichael), Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) en Gwendolyn Brooks, asook die Pan-Afrikanistiese denkers en leiers soos Frantz Fanon, Patrice Lumumba en Cesaire.
Corey Hawkins delivers a barnstormer speech as Black Panther leader Kwame Ture (aka Stokely Carmichael).
Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Kwame Nkrumah, Stokely Carmichael, Malcolm X and women such as Amy Jacques Garvey, Amy Ashwood Garvey and Shirley Graham Du Bois (henceforth referred to by their maiden names).
His heroes include writers, poets, thinkers, leaders and activists such as Allen Ginsberg, Pablo Neruda, Bob Marley, Dostoyevsky, Ho Chi Minh, Mother Teresa, Gandhi and Stokely Carmichael, founder of the Black Panther Party.
Stokely Carmichael became more vocal in his endorsement of "Black Power" which expressed a militant view at odds with that of King.
They sat down and personally interviewed figures like Stokely Carmichael, Bobby Seale, Angela Davis and Eldridge Cleaver, leaders of the movement, and spoke to them in length.
After listening to speeches delivered by SNCC leaders such as Stokely Carmichael, he squeezed onto a Washington, D.C.-bound bus chartered by the NAACP, even though he knew no one aboard.
Stokely Carmichael) after he delivered a speech claiming "the Zionists joined with the Nazis in murdering Jews, so they would flee to Palestine."