Stonewall Jackson

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Jackson, Stonewall

(Thomas Jonathan Jackson), 1824–63, Confederate general, b. Clarksburg, Va. (now W.Va.), grad. West Point, 1846.

Like a Stone Wall

He served with distinction under Winfield Scott in the Mexican War and from 1851 to 1861 taught at the Virginia Military Institute. He resigned from the army in Feb., 1852. At the beginning of the Civil War, Jackson, practically unknown, was made a colonel of Virginia troops and sent to command at Harpers Ferry. After J. E. JohnstonJohnston, Joseph Eggleston,
1807–91, Confederate general, b. Prince Edward co., Va., grad. West Point, 1829. He served against the Seminole in Florida and with distinction under Winfield Scott in the Mexican War.
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 superseded him there in May, 1861, Jackson was given a brigade in Johnston's army and made a Confederate brigadier general. At the first battle of Bull RunBull Run,
small stream, NE Va., c.30 mi (50 km) SW of Washington, D.C. Two important battles of the Civil War were fought there: the first on July 21, 1861, and the second Aug. 29–30, 1862. Both battlefields are included in Manassas National Battlefield Park (est. 1940).
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, he and his brigade earned their sobriquet by standing (in the words of Gen. Barnard Bee) "like a stone wall."

The Valley Campaign

Jackson was promoted to major general, and in November, Johnston assigned him to command in the Shenandoah valley. Jackson's attack on James Shields's division at Kernstown on Mar. 23, 1862, was repulsed but forced the retention of Union troops in the valley. In April, Robert E. LeeLee, Robert Edward,
1807–70, general in chief of the Confederate armies in the American Civil War, b. Jan. 19, 1807, at Stratford, Westmoreland co., Va.; son of Henry ("Light-Horse Harry") Lee.
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 suggested that Jackson fall upon Nathaniel P. Banks's force in the lower valley, hoping that Irvin McDowell's army would thereby be diverted from joining George McClellan before Richmond (see Peninsular campaignPeninsular campaign,
in the American Civil War, the unsuccessful Union attempt (Apr.–July, 1862) to capture Richmond, Va., by way of the peninsula between the York and James rivers. The Plan

Early in 1862, Gen. George B.
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). Jackson's renowned Valley campaign resulted. He first defeated part of John C. Frémont's force at McDowell (c.25 mi/40 km W of Staunton) on May 8, 1862, and then, returning to the Shenandoah, routed Banks at Front Royal and Winchester (May 23–25) and drove him across the Potomac. The federal administration, fearing that Jackson would now advance on Washington, sent Shields from McDowell's army to join Frémont, advancing from the west, in cutting off Jackson. Stonewall, however, retreated rapidly to the head of the valley and on June 8–9 defeated his pursuers at Cross Keys and Port RepublicPort Republic,
village, NW Va., on the South Fork of the Shenandoah River. During the Civil War, on June 8–9, 1862, the last battle of Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson's successful Shenandoah valley campaign was fought nearby.
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Seven Days Battles through Chancellorsville

With the diversion in the Shenandoah Valley a complete success, Jackson joined Lee in the Seven Days battlesSeven Days battles,
in the American Civil War, the week-long Confederate counter-offensive (June 26–July 2, 1862) near Richmond, Va., that ended the Peninsular campaign. After the battle of Fair Oaks the Union general George B.
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. After the brilliance of the Shenandoah campaign, his service in that week of fighting was disappointing. But he soon redeemed himself. The speedy turning movement executed by his "foot cavalry" against Pope late in Aug., 1862, at the battle of Cedar Mt. set the stage for the crushing victory at the second battle of Bull Run, and in the Antietam campaignAntietam campaign
, Sept., 1862, of the Civil War. After the second battle of Bull Run, Gen. Robert E. Lee crossed the Potomac to invade Maryland and Pennsylvania. At Frederick, Md., he divided (Sept.
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 he marched promptly to Lee's aid after he had captured the Harpers Ferry garrison.

When Lee reorganized the Army of Northern Virginia after Antietam, he made Jackson commander of the 2d Corps, and Stonewall was promoted to lieutenant general. He ably commanded the Confederate right in the battle of FredericksburgFredericksburg, battle of,
in the Civil War, fought Dec. 13, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Va. In Nov., 1862, the Union general Ambrose Burnside moved his three "grand divisions" under W. B. Franklin, E. V.
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 in December. In the battle of ChancellorsvilleChancellorsville, battle of,
May 2–4, 1863, in the American Civil War. Late in Apr., 1863, Joseph Hooker, commanding the Union Army of the Potomac, moved against Robert E.
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, Lee and Jackson repeated the tactics of second Bull Run. Jackson's turning movement completely crumbled Hooker's right (May 2, 1863). Pressing on in the darkness, Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded by the fire of his own men.

His death was a severe blow to the Southern cause. Jackson was a tactician of first rank and, though a strict disciplinarian, had the affection of his men. His devout Calvinism, fighting ability, and arresting personal quirks make him one of the most interesting figures of the war. He was Lee's ablest and most trusted lieutenant.


See biographies by G. F. R. Henderson (1898, new ed. 1961), B. Davis (1954, repr. 1961), L. Chambers (1959), R. B. Cook (4th ed. 1963), J. M. Selby (1968), J. Bowers (1989), and J. I. Robertson, Jr. (1997); H. K. Douglas, I Rode with Stonewall (1940), R. K. Krick, Stonewall Jackson at Cedar Mountain (1990) and Conquering the Valley (1996), R. G. Tanner, Stonewall in the Valley (1996).

References in periodicals archive ?
Imboden, "Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah," in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, vol.
Stonewall Jackson, who served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, was born on Jan.21, 1824 and owned slaves.
Alexander paints a fresh picture of Stonewall Jackson as a military strategist who's ideas may have won the Civil War for the Confederacy, if they'd been implemented.
Shenandoah Valley 1862: Stonewall Jackson Outmaneuvers the Union receives fine color illustrations by Adam Hook to compliment black and white accounts of the campaign that lead Jackson to march his army over 600 miles in 48 days, winning five major battles in the process and overcoming a Union force of some 50,000 men.
Pacific Fleet; Supply Officer in USS Stonewall Jackson (SSBN 634) and USS John C.
Inventing Stonewall Jackson: A Civil War Hero in History and Memory, by Wallace Hettle, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Louisiana State University Press, 2011, xi, 200 pp.
But then she was Stolen by Stonewall Jackson just before his Rise to Fame, and Later by General Sherman, of the Union Army, who rode her Through Atlanta, while it Burned.
These successes were costly, however, as key subordinates (particularly Stonewall Jackson) were lost, and the army suffered immense casualties.
Chandler, Riverheads High School; Cristyn Filla, Stuarts Draft High School; Noah Rodammer, Waynesboro High School, and Mary Alexander, Wilson Memorial High School; Kali Chenault, Broadway High School; Tyler Pattie, Central High School; James Bebber, East Rockingham; Lauren Phillips, Harrisonburg High School; Delaney Westwood, Spotswood High School; Donald Sobanko, Stonewall Jackson High School; Elizabeth Keller, Strasburg High School, and Meagan Swortzel, Turner Ashby High School; Jamie Sprouse, Bath County High; David Leech, Highland High School; Lucas Wheeler, Parry McClure High School; Josh Hartless, Rockbridge High School; and, Joscelyn Seaton, private school.
He was the author of the definitive biography of Stonewall Jackson. I recall picking that book up one day expecting a read like eating sawdust.
1824: Stonewall Jackson. American Confederate General.