Straits Settlements

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Straits Settlements,

collective name for certain former British colonies in Southeast Asia. The three British East India Company territories of PinangPinang
or Penang
, state (1991 pop. 1,065,075), c.400 sq mi (1,040 sq km), Malaysia, on the Strait of Malacca. It consists of Pulau Pinang (an island of 108 sq mi/280 sq km), formerly known as Georgetown; and Province Wellesley (292 sq mi/756 sq km), a strip of
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, SingaporeSingapore
, officially Republic of Singapore, republic (2015 est. pop. 5,535,000), 299 sq mi (774 sq km). It consists of the island of Singapore and about 60 small adjacent islands at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, SE Asia.
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, and Malacca (see MelakaMelaka
or Malacca
, state (1991 pop. 504,502), 640 sq mi (1,658 sq km), Malaysia, S Malay Peninsula, on the Strait of Malacca. Formerly one of the Straits Settlements, it was constituted a state of Malaya in 1957 (see Malaysia).
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) were given a unified administration in 1826 and called the Straits Settlements. The company was dissolved in 1858, and the territories were placed under the jurisdiction of the India Office. In 1867 the Straits Settlements became a crown colony administered by the Colonial Office. LabuanLabuan
, island (1991 pop. 54,307), 38 sq mi (98 sq km), a federal territory of Malaysia, off Sabah, N Borneo, in the South China Sea. Coconuts, rubber, and rice are the main products.
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, which had been made a dependency of Singapore in 1906, was constituted a fourth Settlement in 1912. (Christmas IslandChristmas Island,
tropical island (2016 pop. 1,843), 60 sq mi (155 sq km), an external territory of Australia, in the Indian Ocean c.200 mi (320 km) S of Java. The majority of the inhabitants are descendants of Chinese and Malays who came to work the extensive phosphate deposits.
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 and the Cocos IslandsCocos Islands
or Keeling Islands,
officially Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, two separate atolls comprising 27 coral islets (2016 pop. 544), 5.5 sq mi (14.2 sq km), in the Indian Ocean, c.1,400 mi (2,250 km) SE of Sri Lanka.
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 had been made dependencies of Singapore in 1889 and 1903, respectively.) The Straits Settlement crown colony was dissolved in 1946; Singapore with its dependencies became a separate crown colony, and Pinang and Malacca were included in the Malayan Union, which became the Federation of Malaya in 1948, now MalaysiaMalaysia
, independent federation (2015 est. pop. 30,723,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Straits Settlements


from 1826 to 1946, a British colony in Southeast Asia. The Straits Settlements originally included the island of Pinang and Province Wellesley, which is situated on the Malay Peninsula, and also the island of Singapore and the city of Malacca. Later the colony included a Naning, a principality on the Malay Peninsula that was conquered in 1831–32, as well as Labuan Island, the Cocos Islands, and Christmas Island. George Town, on Pinang, was the capital until 1832, when Singapore became the capital.

The Straits Settlements were a part of British India until 1867, when they became a Crown Colony. As of 1976, Pinang, the Malay Peninsula, and Labuan Island have become part of Malaysia. Singapore is a republic, and the Cocos Islands and Christmas Island belong to the Commonwealth of Australia.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Straits Settlements

(formerly) a British crown colony of SE Asia that included Singapore, Penang, Malacca, Labuan, and some smaller islands
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In 1862, Straits Settlement Governor William Cavenagh reported that nearly as much land (43,690 acres) lay abandoned and treeless in Singapore as remained under forest cover (54,000 acres).
Two years later Singapore was grouped together with other British possessions in the region to form the Straits Settlements.
However, such sources as the Letter of the Governor of the Straits Settlements to the Secretary of State for the Colonies on the causes of the mutiny, the lectures of Chisti Khan, and the letters of the sepoys back to India, indicate the impact of religious matters and the war against Turkey on the outlook of the soldiers of the Fifth Light Infantry.
Innes, Report on the Census of the Straits Settlements taken on the 1st March 1901 (Singapore: Government Printing Office, 1901), pp.
Chronologically there are 190 maps from the East India Company period 1819-66, 530 from the pre-WWI Straits Settlements period 1866-1918, 1700 from the interwar period, 700 from WW2 including Japanese reproduction of British mapping with Singapore renamed Syonan, 2200 from the post-war pre-independence period 1945-65, and 4200 from post-independence 1965-present.
Phoenix rising: Narratives in Nyonya beadwork for the Straits settlements. Singapore: NUS Press.
Sayid Abdul Rahman set up a firm Alsagoff and Company in the year 1848 to manage a large part of the Straits Settlements exports such as timber, rubber, sago, coconut, cocoa and coffee to Arab and European countries.
As British influence expanded in the Straits Settlements of Malacca, Penang and Singapore during the first quarter of the 19th century, the Straits Chinese soon apprehended the advantages that accrued from an education in English.
In 1826, Singapore, Penang, and Malacca were combined as the Straits Settlements to form an outlying residency of the British East India Company; in 1867, the Straits Settlements were made a British Crown Colony, an arrangement that continued until 1946.
Focusing on the experiences of Singapore's Indian minority during the periods in which the Straits Settlements functioned as an Indian presidency, 1825-1867, and as a penal settlement for transported Indian convicts, 1825-1873, Pieris (U.
Nathan Collection of Straits Settlements, an award-winning group of stamps and covers.
Sir Stamford Raffles founded a British settlement on the island of Singapore in 1819 and by 1830 the British Straits Settlements also included Malacca.