Strategic Defense Initiative

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Strategic Defense Initiative

(SDI), former U.S. government program responsible for research and development of a space-based system to defend the nation from attack by strategic ballistic missiles (see guided missileguided missile,
self-propelled, unmanned space or air vehicle carrying an explosive warhead. Its path can be adjusted during flight, either by automatic self-contained controls or remote human control. Guided missiles are powered either by rocket engines or by jet propulsion.
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). The program is now administered by the Missile Defense Agency (originally the Strategic Defense Initiative Office), a separate agency in the U.S. Dept. of DefenseDefense, United States Department of,
executive department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and military affairs.
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. SDI, popularly referred to as "Star Wars," was announced by President Ronald Reagan in a speech in Mar., 1983, and was derided by critics as unrealistic. Space programs from other agencies and services were brought together in the organization. It has investigated many new technologies, including ground-based lasers, space-based lasers, and automated space vehicles. Critics argued that the original SDI program would encourage the militarization of space and destabilize the nuclear balance of power, and was technologically infeasible, based on untested technologies, and unable to defend against cruise missilescruise missile,
low-flying, continuously powered offensive missile designed to evade defense systems. A cruise missile typically uses an aircraft engine rather than a rocket engine to fly at subsonic or supersonic speeds, with a range of 2,000 mi (3,200 km) or more, but often
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, airplanes, or several other possible delivery systems. In addition, some countermeasures to SDI technologies, such as decoy missiles and shielding of armed missiles, would be simple to implement. In 1987 the Soviet Union revealed it had a similar program.

The end of the cold warcold war,
term used to describe the shifting struggle for power and prestige between the Western powers and the Communist bloc from the end of World War II until 1989. Of worldwide proportions, the conflict was tacit in the ideological differences between communism and
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 led to criticism that SDI was unnecessary, and in 1991 President G. H. W. BushBush, George Herbert Walker,
1924–2018, 41st President of the United States (1989–93), b. Milton, Mass., B.A., Yale Univ., 1948. Career in Business and Government
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 called for a more limited version using rocket-launched interceptors based on the ground at a single site. In 1993, SDI was reorganized as the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO). The more limited system, called the National Missile Defense (NMD), is intended to protect all 50 states from a rogue missile attack, but the deployment of such a system was forbidden under the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. Russia opposed the NMD plan but, under President Putin, also proposed a mobile, pan-European missile defense system with a similar purpose that would not violate the ABM treaty.

In 2001, President George W. BushBush, George Walker,
1946–, 43d President of the United States (2001–9), b. New Haven, Conn. The eldest son of President George H. W. Bush, he was was raised in Texas and, like his father, attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass., and Yale, graduating in 1968.
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 called for accelerated development of the NMD system, and subsequently withdrew from the ABM treaty to permit the system's development and deployment. Apparently successful early tests of the U.S. system were later revealed to have occurred after the odds of success had been enhanced (1984, 1991). Subsequent tests were generally more successful, although flawed or limited in certain respects, but tests in 2002, 2004, and 2005 involved failures. In 2002, President Bush ordered the deployment of a modest missile defense system by 2004, with interceptors based at sea (in the Pacific and, to a lesser degree, the Atlantic) and at Fort Greely, Alaska, and Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., and several interceptor missiles were emplaced by the end of 2004. Also in 2002, the BMDO was renamed the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). In addition to NMD, the MDA is also working to develop missile defenses for the battlefield as part of the Theater Missile Defense program. In 2007 the MDA reported that, although missile defense system was still under development and not officially operational, it was ready for use.

Antimissile systems stationed in Poland and Czech Republic were also proposed, and agreements signed with those nations in 2008; Russia objected strongly to the proposal. Those plans were abandoned (2009) under President Barack ObamaObama, Barack
(Barack Hussein Obama 2d), , 1961–, 44th president of the United States (2009–17), b. Honolulu, grad. Columbia (B.A. 1983), Harvard Law School (J.D. 1991).
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, who proposed stationing interceptor missiles in SE Europe. In Nov., 2011, NATO agreed to establish a missile defense system that would incorporate the U.S. interceptors and protect all member nations. Russia was invited to participate but continued to oppose the revised plan. Under the plan, missile interceptors have been based at sea since 2011; a radar site in Turkey and command facilities at Ramstein, Germany, became operational in 2012 and a land-based missile interceptor site in Romania was completed in 2015. Israel has also developed a ballistic missile defense system as part of a broader program to protect the country against missile attacks.

Bibliography

See studies by S. Lakoff and H. York (1989) and F. FitzGerald (2000).

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Strategic Defense Initiative

A U.S. high-tech anti-ballistic missile defense system proposed during the Reagan administration in the 1980s. Also called "Star Wars."
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References in periodicals archive ?
In 1983, then-Soviet Minister of Defence Nikolai Ogarkov lamented to the New York Times that in the US, "small children -- even before they begin school -- play with computers....here we don't even have computers in every office of the Ministry of Defence." The Soviets were concerned about Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defence Initiative, a land and space-based missile defence system, in part due to its artificial intelligence-enabled battle management system.
How was the Strategic Defence Initiative announced by Reagan in 1983 popularly known?
As late as 1987, the USSR tried and failed to launch the unmanned Polyus spacecraft that was equipped with a carbon dioxide laser and designed to destroy America's anti-missile Strategic Defence Initiative satellites.
US President Ronald Reagan unveiled plans for the controversial Star Wars Strategic Defence Initiative using lasers to stop nukes.
This was the so-called Strategic Defence Initiative, parodied by opponents of Reagan's foreign policy as "Star Wars." Peaceniks mocked S.D.I., but ruling circles in Moscow treated it with deadly seriousness.
But it is still more limited than President Reagan's 1983 Strategic Defence Initiative - dubbed Star Wars.
In this book, the story of the development of the Strategic Defence Initiative (S.D.I.) is skilfully interwoven by the author with an analysis of the Reagan Presidency.
Yet Mr Blair has decided that Britain should support the Strategic Defence Initiative - a ludicrous "technical fix" dreamt up by this far right-wing US administration - which most experts doubt has no more than a one-in-a-million chance of working, but which will, at a cost of trillions of dollars, break hard-won arms control treaties, while at the same time making Britain a prime target.
Such a force would continue work done by the European countries in the early 1990s, known as the European Strategic Defence Initiative, which followed the development of both the EU and the Western European Union - the precursor to Nato.
In subsequent debates about the Strategic Defence Initiative, Star Wars references continued to be used effectively by Reagan's opponents to undermine his credibility as a politician and military strategist.
All of this brings to mind the long-running debate over a former president's fears of spacebound warfare President Ronald Reagan's oft-maligned Strategic Defence Initiative, aka Star Wars.

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