Stravinsky, Igor (Fyodorovich)(1882–1971) composer, conductor; born in Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, Russia. Son of an admired bass in the Imperial Opera, he studied piano and composition as a boy. Although he studied law at St. Petersburg University, he was far more interested in music; between 1903–06 he studied composition under Rimsky-Korsokov and became a member of that composer's circle. In 1909 the Russian ballet impresario Sergei Diaghilev invited him to compose for his company, the Ballets Russes; in 1910 the company danced Stravinsky's first major work, The Firebird, and for the next 20 years he was closely associated with Diaghilev's company; their premiere of Stravinsky's Le Sacre du Printemps ("the rite of spring") in 1913 caused a tremendous commotion. After 1910 Stravinsky essentially settled in Western Europe—first Switzerland, then Paris—where he toured as a conductor and pianist in performances of his own music; after the Russian Revolution in 1917, he regarded himself as an exile. In 1926 he rejoined the Russian Orthodox Church and his devout Christianity inspired many of his subsequent works. After three tours in the U.S.A. and several American commissions, he moved there in 1939, settled in Los Angeles, and became a naturalized citizen in 1945. Although he continued to be an international neoclassicist in his musical style, he did show some recognition of his American environment, writing his famous Circus Polka (1942) for the elephants of the Barnum and Bailey Circus and his Ebony Concerto (1945) for Woody Herman; his various efforts at movie music ended up being used in other compositions. The climax of his neoclassical style was his opera, The Rake's Progress (1951). The young American conductor, Robert Craft, became Stravinsky's inseparable assistant from 1948 on; Craft not only aided Stravinsky in his various musical projects but helped him assemble several books; Craft also introduced Stravinsky to the serialist school of music and, from the early 1950s, Stravinsky composed in his own adaptation of this style. By this time, he was generally recognized as the leading composer of his era and he toured throughout the world conducting his own and others' works; in 1962 his 80th birthday was widely celebrated and he made a triumphant return to Russia. He settled in New York City in 1969 and died there, but was buried in Venice near Diaghilev's grave.
Stravinsky, Igor Fedorovich
Born June 5 (17), 1882, in Oranienbaum (now the city of Lomonosov); died Apr. 6, 1971, in New York; buried in Venice. Russian composer and conductor. Son of the singer F. I. Stravinsky.
At an early age Stravinsky became acquainted with Russian literature, painting, theater, and music. He began playing the piano at the age of nine, and at 18 he began his own study of the theory of composition while studying law at St. Petersburg University (1900–05). In 1902 he began musical studies with N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, whom he called his spiritual father. The Scherzo Fantastique and the fantasy Fireworks for orchestra (both 1908) were Stravinsky’s first works to attract attention. Stravinsky was greatly helped by S. P. Diaghilev, organizer of the Russian Seasons Abroad in Paris. It was for Diaghilev’s ballet that he composed The Firebird (1910), Petrouchka (1911), and The Rite of Spring (Le Sacre duprintemps; 1913), which gained the composer world fame. Beginning in 1910, Stravinsky lived alternately in Paris and Switzerland and at his wife’s estate in Russia. He settled in Switzerland in 1914 and in France in 1920. In 1939 he moved to the USA and became a US citizen in 1945. He conducted concert tours abroad, performing his own works and, occasionally, compositions by M. I. Glinka and P. I. Tchaikovsky. These tours became more frequent after World War II. In 1962, Stravinsky performed in composer’s concerts in the USSR.
At the beginning of his career, Stravinsky was influenced by Rimsky-Korsakov, M. P. Mussorgsky, and Tchaikovsky; he accorded Tchaikovsky’s music high regard even in his later years. C. Debussy exercised a short-lived but strong influence on Stravinsky. Stravinsky was especially interested in Russian folklore, which left its mark on the composer’s Russian period of composition. Next to The Rite of Spring, the central work of these early years was the choreographic cantata The Wedding (Les Noces; 1914–23), which the composer described as “choreographic Russian scenes with singing and music to folk texts from the collection of P. Kireevskii.” Stravinsky turned to folk texts, folk subjects, and the melodiousness of the folk tradition and from these developed an original creative idiom that was bright, explosive, and dynamic. This idiom contributed to a renewal of the Russian national intonational style. At the same time, the everyday music of the modern city also found expression in Stravinsky’s works. Elements of archaic and everyday music were interwoven in The Soldier’s Tale (Histoire du soldat, “a tale of a deserting soldier and the devil”; 1918), a ballet pantomime with narrator. Here, as in another ballet pantomime with singing, The Fox (Reynard; 1916), Stravinsky drew his subject from a Russian folktale. Stravinsky established a new kind of musical stage work, characteristic of present-day conventional theater, by combining various theatrical devices. For example, he incorporated singing into ballet and used oral recitation to elucidate musical performances.
Stravinsky’s shift toward neoclassicism was first evident in Pulcinella, a ballet with singing (based on music by G. B. Pergo-lesi; 1920). The transition was consolidated in his Octet for Wind Instruments and his Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (both 1923). Stravinsky continued in this style until the early 1950’s. Russian themes gave way to those of classical mythology and biblical texts, and the composer concentrated less on vocal music and more on instrumental works. (For his vocal compositions Stravinsky had mainly used Latin and, sometimes, French texts.) This trend diminished the influence of the composer’s Russian origins, although Stravinsky contended: “I have spoken Russian all my life. I think in Russian and have a Russian style. Perhaps it is not immediately evident in my music, but it is ingrained in it, in its hidden nature” (Komsomol’skaia pravda, Sept. 27, 1962, p. 4).
The works Stravinsky composed in this period demonstrated his assimilation of devices and techniques of the European baroque, ancient contrapuntal techniques, and the melodies of Italian bel canto. The composer’s brilliant artistic individuality was able to combine a heterogeneity of styles. Nonetheless, in the late 1930’s, signs of crisis can be seen in Stravinsky’s works, and there was an uncertainty and vacillation in his intellectual striving. Stravinsky’s finest works composed between the 1920’s and the early 1950’s include the opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex (1927), the allegorical ballet The Fairy’s Kiss (Le Baiser de lafée, based on music by Tchaikovsky; 1928), Symphony of Psalms (1930), the Concerto for Violin and Orchestra (1931), the Concerto for Two Pianos (1935), two symphonies (1940, 1945), the ballet Orpheus (1947), and the opera The Rake’s Progress (1951).
In the late 1940’s and the 1950’s, Stravinsky’s creative technique underwent another change—a turn to the twelve-tone technique of A. Schönberg. However, Stravinsky used this compositional technique modulated by his own tonal thinking. His choice of themes became much narrower, and religious images and subject matter predominated. His Mass for Horns and Orchestra (1948) marked a turning point. His music became more severe and acerbic, often self-consciously complex. Vocal-instrumental works to Latin and English texts were predominant. Stravinsky’s most significant compositions included the cantata Canticum sacrum ad honorem Sancti Marci nominis (1956), the ballet Agon (1957), and Requiem Canticles (1966). Stravinsky’s last composition was an adaptation of two songs by H. Wolf for chamber orchestra (1967).
Stravinsky is also the author of literary works, mainly autobiographical. In them he treats certain questions of musical aesthetics in a highly controversial manner, offering subjective evaluations and interpretations. Chronicle of My Life was translated into Russian in 1963 and Dialogues and a Diary in 1971.
REFERENCESGlebov, Igor’ [Asaf’ev, B. V.]. Kniga o Stravinskom. Leningrad, 1929.
Iarustovskii, B. M. I. Stravinskii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1969.
Druskin, M. S. I. Stravinskii: Lichnost’. Tvorchestvo. Vzgliady. Leningrad-Moscow, 1974.
M. S. DRUSKIN