training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups: (a) 7 swimmers who were tethered by a rubber device while in the water (RW); (b) 7 swimmers who did a traditional strength training (ST) program; and (c) 7 swimmers who comprised the control group (CG).
But the main reason you love strength training it is that it is really fun and positively addictive.
The evidence for changes in functional ability in response to strength training is less clear, with some studies demonstrating significant gains in function (Bale and Strand 2008, Clark and Patten 2013, Duncan et al 1998, Teixeira-Salmela et al 1999, Yang et al 2006) while others are less convincing (Kim et al 2001, Lee 2010, Ouellette et al 2004, Severinsen et al 2014).
The one year follow-up study found the cognitive benefits of strength training persisted, and with two critical findings.
Speaking of injuries, most associated with strength training are minor and include strains and sprains.
This article is devoted to the design of a strength training course for a college undergraduate Physical Education curriculum.
If strength training is done right, says the AHA, it enhances the benefits of aerobic exercise plus increases function and independence in healthy older people and in those with cardiovascular disease.
The program includes sections on the power of strength training, making lifestyle changes, getting motivated, starting the program, getting started (with illustrated exercises), how to progress your training, and "Staying on Track"--a 12-week workbook with exercise sheets.
QUEBEC CITY -- Children as young as 6 years old can benefit from carefully supervised strength training, which can lay the foundation for an athletic future, either in competition or as part of a healthy lifestyle, according to Avery Faigenbaum, Ed.
Not too long ago, it seemed as if female strength training was on trial and had to be defended before and after every workout.
QUEBEC CITY -- Children as young as 6 years can benefit from carefully supervised strength training, which can lay the foundation for an athletic future, either in competition or as part of a healthy lifestyle, said Avery Faigenbanm, Ed.