Stress and strain
Stress and strain
Related terms defining the intensity of internal reactive forces in a deformed body and associated unit changes of dimension, shape, or volume caused by externally applied forces. Stress is a measure of the internal reaction between elementary particles of a material in resisting separation, compaction, or sliding that tend to be induced by external forces. Total internal resisting forces are resultants of continuously distributed normal and parallel forces that are of varying magnitude and direction and are acting on elementary areas throughout the material. These forces may be distributed uniformly or nonuniformly. Stresses are identified as tensile, compressive, or shearing, according to the straining action.
Strain is a measure of deformation such as (1) linear strain, the change of length per unit of linear dimensions; (2) shear strain, the angular rotation in radians of an element undergoing change of shape by shearing forces; or (3) volumetric strain, the change of volume per unit of volume. The strains associated with stress are characteristic of the material. Strains completely recoverable on removal of stress are called elastic strains. Above a critical stress, both elastic and plastic strains exist, and that part remaining after unloading represents plastic deformation called inelastic strain. Inelastic strain reflects internal changes in the crystalline structure of the metal. Increase of resistance to continued plastic deformation due to more favorable rearrangement of the atomic structure is strain hardening.
A stress-strain diagram is a graphical representation of simultaneous values of stress and strain observed in tests and indicates material properties associated with both elastic and inelastic behavior (see illustration). It indicates significant values of stress-accompanying changes produced in the internal structure. See Elasticity