Methods of joining the individual members of a structure to form a complete assembly. The connections furnish supporting reactions and transfer loads from one member to another. Loads are transferred by fasteners (rivets, bolts) or welding supplemented by suitable arrangements of plates, angles, or other structural shapes. When the end of a member must be free to rotate, a pinned connection is used.
The suitability of a connection depends on its deformational characteristics as well as its strength. Rotational flexibility or complete rigidity must be provided according to the degree of end restraint assumed in the design. A rigid connection maintains the original angles between connected members virtually unchanged after loading. Flexible or nonrestraining connections permit rotation approximately equal to that at the ends of a simply supported beam. Intermediate degrees of restraint are called semirigid.
A commonly used form of connection for rolled-beam sections, called a web connection, consists of two angles which are attached to opposite sides of a member and which are in turn connected to the web of a supporting beam, girder, column, or framing at right angles. A shelf angle may be added to facilitate erection (Fig. 1).
A bracket or seat on which the end of the beam rests is a seat connection; it is intended to furnish the end reaction of the supported beam. Two general types are used: The unstiffened seat provides bearing for the beam by a projecting plate or angle leg which offers resistance only by its own flexural strength (Fig. 2); the stiffened seat is supported by a vertical plate or angle which transfers the reaction force to the supporting member without flexural distortion of the outstanding seat.
When the action line of a transferred force does not pass through the centroid of the connecting fastener group or welds, the connection is subjected to rotational moment which produces additional shearing stresses in the connectors. The load transmitted by diagonal bracing to a supporting column flange through a gusset plate is eccentric with reference to the connecting fastener group.
In beam-to-column connections and stiffened seat connections or when members transfer loads to columns by a gusset plate or a bracket, the fasteners are subjected to tension forces caused by the eccentric connection. Although there are initial tensions in the fasteners, the final tension is not appreciably greater than the initial tension.
Rigidity and moment resistance are necessary at the ends of beams forming part of a continuous framework which must resist lateral and vertical loads. Wind pressures tend to distort a building frame, producing bending in the beams and columns which must be suitably connected to transfer moment and shear. The resisting moment can be furnished by various forms of angle T for fasteners or welded or bracket connections.
Where appreciably angular change between members is expected, and in special cases where a hinge support without moment resistance is desired, connections are pinned. Many bridge trusses and large girder spans have pin supports. See Joint (structures)