Structural design

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Structural design

The selection of materials and member type, size, and configuration to carry loads in a safe and serviceable fashion. In general, structural design implies the engineering of stationary objects such as buildings and bridges, or objects that may be mobile but have a rigid shape such as ship hulls and aircraft frames. Devices with parts planned to move with relation to each other (linkages) are generally assigned to the area of mechanical design.

Structural design involves at least five distinct phases of work: project requirements, materials, structural scheme, analysis, and design. For unusual structures or materials a sixth phase, testing, should be included. These phases do not proceed in a rigid progression, since different materials can be most effective in different schemes, testing can result in changes to a design, and a final design is often reached by starting with a rough estimated design, then looping through several cycles of analysis and redesign. Often, several alternative designs will prove quite close in cost, strength, and serviceability. The structural engineer, owner, or end user would then make a selection based on other considerations.

Before starting design, the structural engineer must determine the criteria for acceptable performance. The loads or forces to be resisted must be provided. For specialized structures this may be given directly, as when supporting a known piece of machinery, or a crane of known capacity. For conventional buildings, building codes adopted on a municipal, county, or state level provide minimum design requirements for live loads (occupants and furnishings, snow on roofs, and so on). The engineer will calculate dead loads (structure and known, permanent intallations) during the design process. For the structure to be serviceable or useful, deflections must also be kept within limits, since it is possible for safe structures to be uncomfortably “bouncy.” Very tight deflection limits are set on supports for machinery, since beam sag can cause driveshafts to bend, bearings to burn out, parts to misalign, and overhead cranes to stall. Beam stiffness also affects floor “bounciness,” which can be annoying if not controlled. In addition, lateral deflection, sway, or drift of tall buildings is often held within approximately height/500 (1/500 of the building height) to minimize the likelihood of motion discomfort in occupants of upper floors on windy days. See Loads, dynamic, Loads, transverse

Technological advances have created many novel materials such as carbon fiber- and boron fiber-reinforced composites, which have excellent strength, stiffness, and strenth-to-weight properties. However, because of the high cost and difficult or unusual fabrication techniques required, glass-reinforced composites such as fiberglass are more common, but are limited to lightly loaded applications. The main materials used in structural design are more prosaic and include steel, aluminum, reinforced concrete, wood, and masonry. See Composite material, Masonry, Precast concrete, Prestressed concrete, Reinforced concrete, Structural materials

In an actual structure, various forces are experienced by structural members, including tension, compression, flexure (bending), shear, and torsion (twist). However, the structural scheme selected will influence which of these forces occurs most frequently, and this will influence the process of material selection. See Shear, Torsion

Analysis of structures is required to ensure stability (static equilibrium), find the member forces to be resisted, and determine deflections. It requires that member configuration, approximate member sizes, and material properties be known or assumed. Aspects of analysis include: equilibrium; stress, strain, and elastic modulus; linearity; plasticity; and curvature and plane sections. Various methods are used to complete the analysis.

Once a structure has been analyzed (by using geometry alone if the analysis is determinate, or geometry plus assumed member sizes and materials if indeterminate), final design can proceed. Deflections and allowable stresses or ultimate strength must be checked against criteria provided either by the owner or by the governing building codes. Safety at working loads must be calculated. Several methods are available, and the choice depends on the types of materials that will be used. Once a satisfactory scheme has been analyzed and designed to be within project criteria, the information must be presented for fabrication and construction. This is commonly done through drawings, which indicate all basic dimensions, materials, member sizes, the anticipated loads used in design, and anticipated forces to be carried through connections.

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