Substratum

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substratum

[¦səb′strad·əm]
(geology)
Any layer underlying the true soil.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Substratum

 

remnants of an ethnic group’s former native language that have been retained in the language replacing the first, original language. The term also designates the original language itself, for example, the Celtic substratum in French, the Dacian substratum in Rumanian, the pre-Indo-European substratum—Hurrian-Urartaean—in Armenian, and the Iranian substratum in some Uzbek dialects.

The influence of the substratum may be observed at both the phonetic and phonological levels, in changes in articulation and in the modification of distinctive features. In grammar, it may be observed in functional changes in the original grammatical forms and in loan translations of syntactic constructions; in the lexicon, it is manifested by borrowings and caiques.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
As mentioned above, three sub-stratums were identified to analyse the perception of CSP officers.
There's a whole festering sub-stratum of society in Scotland that lives off drugs, theft and violence - at the expense of the decent, law-abiding people.
The worms are artificially raised in a sub-stratum that usually consists of cow manure.