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(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.



The escape of blood from the vascular system.


(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
We report a case of conjunctival amyloidosis with repeated subconjunctival hemorrhages.
The most common ocular manifestation in our patients was subconjunctival hemorrhage followed by retinal hemorrhages.
The eye was in better condition than on the first day because subconjunctival hemorrhage heals spontaneously and quickly (Figure 1).
KEY WORDS: Etiology, Spontaneous, Subconjunctival hemorrhage, Trauma.
During the 10 months after the FDA granted "exclusivity" to this product in January 2003, the FDA received a report of a 6-year-old girl who, 24 hours after starting treatment with ophthalmic moxifloxacin, developed a subconjunctival hemorrhage, which resolved after moxifloxacin was dis-continued.
Subconjunctival hemorrhage is among the most common, but it does not have any impact on visual acuity or the course of the disease.
At the time of hospital admission, the patient had fever of 38.6[degrees]C, tachycardia, dyspnea, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, generalized maculopapular rash, and subconjunctival hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation showed thrombocytopenia (platelets 64,000/[mm.sup.3]), leukocytosis (14,000/ [mm.sup.3]), and elevated levels of serum hepatic enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase 287 IU/L [reference 5-50 IU/L]; alanine aminotransferase 186 IU/L [reference 5-40 IU/L]).
Other ocular manifestations of battering include hyphema, lid ecchymoses, subconjunctival hemorrhage, lens subluxation, and differences in pupil size.
Subconjunctival hemorrhage was the most frequent hemorrhagic complication.
On anterior segment examination of the right eye, subconjunctival hemorrhage and hyperemia were observed (Figure 1).
of Percentage cases of cases Retinal & vitreous hemorrhage 12 36.36% Subconjunctival hemorrhage & chemosis 9 27.27% Lid oedema 6 18.2% Hyphema 4 12.12% Anterior Uveitis 2 6.05% Fig.
A palpebral conjunctival follicular reaction, subconjunctival hemorrhage, and congestion are common.