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any system of beliefs, values and norms which is shared and actively participated in by an appreciable minority of people within a particular culture. The relationship of the subculture to the so-called dominant culture has been identified as one of subordination and relative powerlessness. Power relations are therefore an important dimension of any sociological consideration of subculture.

Subcultures have been examined in terms of ETHNICITY, CLASS, DEVIANCE and YOUTH CULTURE. R. MERTON constructed a typology of possible responses to a dysjunction between means and goals. These responses might give rise to a number of different subcultures. S. Cohen (1971) has noted the emergence of a succession of youth subcultures in the postwar era, for example, in Britain, ‘Teds’, ‘Mods’, ‘Rockers’ and ‘Punks’. It has been suggested that such subcultures serve as ‘magical solutions’ to the problems created for young working-class people in contemporary Western societies (Brake, 1980). They serve to provide a means of establishing both individual and group identity They are discernible largely through stylistic expression, particularly language, demeanour, music, dress and dance.

Subcultures, like culture generally, are the result of collective creativity and are therefore subject to historical change and transformation. Feminist theorists such as McRobbie and Garber (1976), McRobbie (1991) have noted that gender is rarely considered in the study of subcultures. They have raised important questions concerning the relationship of young women to youth subcultures. See also CULTURAL STUDIES, CULTURAL CAPITAL, CULTURAL DEPRIVATION, CULTURAL LAG, CULTURAL (AND LINGUISTIC) RELATIVISM.

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
References in periodicals archive ?
Factional subcultures - arise when disagreement becomes endemic, and the team starts to organise itself around continuing conflict.
When combined with the experience of growing up in Appalachia, queerness -- as defined by the collection, a blanket term for being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender -- leads to a new subculture that can leave its members stuck between two worlds.
For those looking to explore their more rebellious side the hotel's basement was transformed into a den of self-expression with air-brush tattoos inspired by the anti-establishment subcultures that bred the Sukeban, Dekochari and Dekotora trends.
Another study published by Oliveira & Silva (1997) showed that the highest in vitro multiplication rates for banana triploid cultivars Nanicao and Grande Naine, were obtained in the third and fourth subcultures. According to the authors, the multiplication rate is one of the main indicators to evaluate the performance of a company that produces micropropagated banana seedlings.
Higher rates of shoot regeneration were obtained by increasing the concentration of BA at the third subculture, and this effect was also observed in earlier subcultures of hypocotyl explants (F Test, orthogonal contrasts, P [less than or equal to] 0.05; Table 2; Figure 3D).
As an example, tailored interventions to support leadership team members were designed to ensure they would develop the competencies to guide the different subcultures through the transition, moving from a traditional change management process of "one-size-fits-all" to a process that embraces complexity and considers the different subcultures inherent to the organization.
Pneumococci were streaked out onto TH-HYC and TH-SYC plates and five subcultures per strain were set.
This study supports the claim that subcultures are defined first and foremost by their relation to the mainstream, described often as resistant, yet inevitably involved segments of the larger culture (Brooker 2003, 240).
Marr integrates biker and ink (tattoo) subcultures and a virile male criminal underclass into her fantasy world.
"This feeling of inclusively is reflected in Subculture which seeks to celebrate our diverse musical influences - from Soca and Calypso, to Reggae, to electronica - and reflect the concerns and tastes of the subcultures that readily embrace them.
This article aims to add to the body of knowledge on the relationship between CSR and culture by exploring the internal dimensions of this dynamic through an emphasis on the existence of subcultures in an organisational setting.
The successive subcultures of tissue cultured plant material for a long period of time can lead to a declining of proliferation rate and the occurrence of hyperhydricity (Vieitez et al., 1985; Gomez et al., 2007).