Stenosis

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Related to Subglottic stenosis: Tracheal stenosis

stenosis

[stə′nō·səs]
(medicine)
Constriction or narrowing, as of the heart or blood vessels.

Stenosis

 

the narrowing of a physiological opening or the lumen of a tubular organ. Examples of the former include stenosis of the left atrioventricular orifice of the heart, or mitral stenosis. Examples of the latter include stenosis of the intestine, trachea, bronchi, arteries, or pylorus of the stomach (pylorostenosis).

Stenoses may be congenital (developmental anomalies) or acquired, in which case they may be caused by a tumor or by scarring following an inflammatory process, ulcer, or trauma. Organic strictures are distinguished from functional stenoses, which result from a spasm of the musculature. Severe stenosis hampers the movement of blood, food, and air, and consequently the musculature of the organ located above the stenosis hypertrophies (compensated stenosis). Later, muscle tone decreases, the lumen of the organ above the stricture enlarges substantially, and the movement through the narrowed part becomes disrupted (decompensated stenosis).

Stenosis is treated surgically by enlarging the affected orifice, as in some cases of heart disease, by passing a bougie through the structure involved, by excising the constricted part, or by performing plastic surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
In late complication, the most common was scarring (8), followed by difficult decannulations (4), stomal granulations (2), and subglottic stenosis (2).
Surgical reconstruction of the tracheal stenosis is effective; however, in some cases subglottic stenosis develops which requires greater surgical skills.
Upper and lower airways are involved in the clinical picture of WG characterized by granulomatous inflammation, and it may cause scar tissue formation leading to permanent subglottic stenosis.
5%) patient with subglottic stenosis had laryngeal edema, managed with tracheostomy for two weeks.
Another study however (3) concluded it carries a high incidence of voice disturbances and could cause subglottic stenosis secondary to granulation tissue after prolonged use.
Thirty-four chapters are devoted to pediatric otolaryngology with topics including developmental anatomy, anesthesia, cleft lip and palate, glottic and subglottic stenosis, voice disorders, and reconstruction surgery of the ear.
Noncardiac chest pain, subglottic stenosis, and laryngeal polyps, edema, and erythema are other common manifestations of atypical GERD.
Aneurysmal bone cyst of the cricoid cartilage: an unusual cause of subglottic stenosis.
There were also children with obstructions caused by subglottic stenosis, tracheomalacia, or laryngomalacia.
Aaron needed a tracheostomy because of acquired subglottic stenosis (a narrowing of the area beneath the vocal cords and the opening between them), an unfortunate result of his earlier need for a breathing tube.