subject and object


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subject and object

(PHILOSOPHY) twin concepts, subject (person, mind, theorist, etc.) and object (external world), which have been central in much philosophical (and also sociological) discussion, especially EPISTEMOLOGY. The central issues have been: how the subject can come to ‘know’ the object, and how each is constituted (ONTOLOGY). Thus, an empiricist (see EMPIRICISM) may claim that the world is made up of’things’, and that the mind consists of’ideas’, and that the latter ‘picture’ or ‘represent’ the former. Alternatively in IDEALISM, ideas may be claimed to structure our perception of objects. Recent movements in philosophy, (e.g. POSTSTRUCTURALISM, POST-EMPIRICISM) have sought to break with traditional conceptions of subject and object (see DECONSTRUCTION, DECENTRED SELF),and to move away from rigid conceptions of epistemology or ontology. In some forms, such a movement away from traditional conceptions of the foundations of knowledge has been associated with RELATIVISM (see also INCOMMENSURABILITY), but another view is that it can be presented as a move beyond objectivism or relativism (see FEYERABEND).
References in classic literature ?
After mentioning the duality of subject and object, which is supposed to constitute consciousness, he proceeds in italics: "EXPERIENCE, I BELIEVE, HAS NO SUCH INNER DUPLICITY; AND THE SEPARATION OF IT INTO CONSCIOUSNESS AND CONTENT COMES, NOT BY WAY OF SUBTRACTION, BUT BY WAY OF ADDITION"(p.
Instead, on this view, truth itself becomes the harmonious interaction between subject and object. Cicovacki's project is to flesh out and improve upon this inchoate view, offering it as an alternative to postmodernism.
Chapter 5 takes up the way in which George Herbert, in The Temple, makes similar use of the language and concepts of usury to interpellate the confusion of subject and object as well as the alienation of self caused by commercialization and its "fetishization of the signifier" (141).
Thus, if 1975 was a year in which Johnson was to draft what some believe to be his finest novel, it was also a time in which he solidifie d an interest in philosophical descriptions of intentionality and subject-object relations -- what Johnson describes as "the correlate of consciousness and its content, noesis-noema, or subject and object" (600).
The core question that remains unanswered is not only who is the subject and who the object of these photographs, but who is subject and object in a larger world where these young women are positioned and position themselves on the receiving end of myriad gazes.
(We leave out a column needed to express constraints dependent on the environment and subject and object attributes [Gladney 19941.] Aggregating subjects and objects into equivalence sets allows us to reexpress this as a table with far fewer rows:
"Worn worlds: clothes and identity on the Renaissance Stage." In Subject and Object in Renaissance Culture, ed.
Its passivity both exacerbates the distinction between subject and object and positions the subject for a more or less secretly wished-for relation of mastery to the object.
When Marcel finally captures in a piece of writing the precious reality that, he felt, the Martinville church steeples were at once offering and hiding from him, he begins to sing with joyous relief "as though I myself were a hen and had just laid an egg." The primitive project of destroying objects by way of an orality that seeks to transform the entire world into the devourer's "system" is superseded by a mode of exchange between subject and object, perhaps best conceptualized as an impregnation.
But, as we have seen, the movement to "clarity" involves the collapse of distance between subject and object. Sliding the distance point toward the principal point, the picture "looks" back at the viewer, making him/her both subject and object of the configuration, conjoining the viewpoint with the two-dimensional surface of the representation.
The ancient problem of subject and object, which probably can be traced back to Plato's idea of the philosopher's eye and the eternal idea, is something that my works attempt to dismantle.
Of the fourteen contributors to Subject and Object in Renaissance Culture, over half participated in the previous venture; all three co-editors of Rewriting the Renaissance are included in the present collection, and two of the three co-editors of Subject and Object were contributors to the earlier volume.