Subject of Law

Subject of Law


a person—physical or juridical—who in law has the capacity to realize rights and juridical duties.

The subject of law is a necessary element of legal relations in all branches of the law, although its status is specific in each such branch. In civil legal relations, citizens are physical persons, and state organs and public organizations are juridical persons. In administrative legal relations, the subjects of law are state organs, officials, and citizens. In recognizing the citizen as a subject of law, the state defines his legal status, which describes his relation to the state, the organs of the state, and other persons.

The concept of subject of law varies from one socioeconomic formation to another. In slaveholding law, only free persons were considered subjects of law, and the extent of their rights depended on citizenship, sex, and social position. Feudal law distinguished between subjects of law according to social estate (soslovie). Bourgeois law declared the formal equality of all citizens, thus masking the de facto inequality stemming from economic inequality. In the socialist countries, all citizens are equal subjects of law, irrespective of sex, race and nationality, social origin, and property ownership.

The legal status of citizens of the USSR embraces the fundamental rights, freedoms, and duties defined in the Constitution of the USSR. The legal status of state organs and public organizations as subjects of law is defined in the USSR by their charters and statutes to the extent necessary for the fulfillment of their tasks. The Soviet state is a subject of federal legal relations, of the law of state ownership of land, factories, railroads, and other such properties, and of the legal relations with respect to the budget and state loans; it is also a subject of law in relations with citizens with respect to their constitutional rights and duties.

In international law, states and several international organizations are subjects of law.

References in periodicals archive ?
The CIM was created in 1928 by a group of American women pioneers with the aim of establishing women as a subject of law and active agents of development and democracy.
When asked about the provincial's role in the increasing abuse of power by the police officers, he said that the Sindh government does not have the power to appoint a police officer, and the same is true in the case in Rao Anwar, who reported to the Sindh Inspector General of PoliceThe provincial minister said that under the 18th Amendment and according to the Supreme Court judgments, the subject of law and order still rests with the federal government.
An I-Pad Tablet was presented to an outstanding student of 'A' Level who topped in the subject of Law in Sindh and Baluchistan region.
Besides this, legal liability completes the legal framework that is necessary for any subject of law.
KARACHI: A lady police official outshone hundreds of her male colleagues as she graduated from a police academy and got distinction in tough physical training as well as in the subject of law, an official on Saturday said.
Drilon said the MILF, as a partner of the government in its peace initiative, should not block but instead assist the police authorities in arresting the likes of Usman, a notorious bomb expert with links to the Jemaah Islamiyah terror network, who has been the subject of law enforcement operations for years.
MS: Well, in Le Contrat naturel [The Natural Contract, 1990], I argued that it was necessary to have a contract with nature, and that nature had to be considered as a subject of law.
He has written widely on the subject of law firm merger and contributed two chapters to the Merger Toolkit recently published by the Law Management Section of the Law Society of England & Wales.
Accounts being reported may be the subject of law enforcement investigations.
The concept of subject of law has undergone significant changes in history if we consider that in Roman society, this quality was not recognized to all men.
Mr Aikenhead started his career with John Laing as a quantity surveying student in 1972 after missing out on the necessary A-level grades to study his chosen subject of law at university.
Tony started his career with John Laing as a quantity surveying student in 1972 after missing out on the necessary A Level grades to study his chosen subject of law at university.