There is little wonder that the conflicting and the uncertain nature of the quantum phenomena has given rise to confusion and to mutually exclusive philosophical claims of the objective reality, ranging from the positivist and subjective idealism
to the realist views of the "guiding waves" of a continuous and permanent objective reality on the one hand and to a mechanistic and simplistic measurement problem as expressed by the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, on the other.
As with Schelling, a naturalism of process and emergence was crucial for Popper's overcoming subjective idealism
without a 'crash' into materialism or physicalism.
While subjective idealism
, transcendental idealism, and absolute idealism can be regarded as a unified series of responses to Cartesian philosophy, the idealist tradition uncovered in the first part of the book is not only prior to Descartes; it is also innocent of the anxieties generated by his philosophy.
As Niiniluoto (1991, p.762) writes, "the ontological position of scientific realism is opposed to all forms of subjective idealism
(such as solipsism and phenomenalism).
The nucleus, unlike the other layers, has no mythical associations, and it teaches a straightforward subjective idealism
and a spiritual monism.
The subjective idealism
implicit in George Brecht's contention that an object does not exist independently of people's contact with it and that, consequently, artistic works are not so much things as occurrences which will occur differently for every individual (44), is seemingly endorsed.
In them, he argued the case for a subjective idealism
allowing material things no existence independent of human perception, which itself depends on the empowerment of the mind of God.
Where such an object oriented approach will lead, as it pursues its novel course as neither a subjective idealism
nor as a hard materialism, is hard to predict.
Hegel's account of perception and mental content introduces the threat of subjective idealism
. Vernon writes: 'Objective content is not really given to us from the outside, for without the attentive activity of mind there would be no determinate experience at all' (48).
The first pole is subjective idealism
, which claims that all knowledge is radically immanent, with no real connection to the "real" world.
George Berkeley (1685-1753) was the Irish philosopher whose thoughts on the nature of existence and perception came to be known as "subjective idealism
." This four-volume work is a paperback facsimile of his collected works, first published in 1901 and put together by Scottish philosopher Alexander Campbell Fraser, who specialized in the work of Berkeley.
Like other modern philosophers, he rejected mechanical materialism for a subjective idealism
and in his attempt to reconcile science and metaphysics viewed the universe as organic.