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a world view that ignores the objective approach to reality and denies the existence of objective laws of nature and society. Subjectivism is one of the main epistemological sources of idealism. In essence, it grants primacy to the role played by the subject in various spheres of activity and in the cognitive process above all. The concomitant abstraction of thought, which does not correspond to the nature of objects, leads ultimately to a divorce from reality, subjective blindness, agnosticism, and relativism (see V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 29, p. 322).

Subjectivism has been expounded by such philosophers as G. Berkeley, D. Hume, and J. G. Fichte; the philosophy of I. Kant is also marked by subjectivist concepts. In the bourgeois philosophy of the 19th and 20th centuries, subjectivism has been a basic principle of such idealist schools of thought as neo-Kan-tianism, empiriocriticism, philosophy of life, pragmatism, neopositivism, and existentialism.

According to Marxist philosophy, which rejects subjectivism, the subject’s active role in practical life and in the cognitive process presupposes the existence of a dialectical relationship between subject and object as well as the existence of an objective reality that has its own laws and is independent of consciousness. Various distortions of Marxism-Leninism have their foundations in subjectivism. Right-wing revisionism, proceeding from a subjectivist understanding of practice, eclectically attempts to combine the principles of Marxist philosophy with subjectivist philosophical conceptions, such as existentialism and pragmatism. The left-wing revision of Marxism-Leninism is an attempt to replace its creative theory with a system of subjectively interpreted dogmas that serve as a justification for voluntarism.

In the political sphere, subjectivism is reflected in policy decisions based on arbitrary, unscientific principles, a contemptuous attitude toward the laws of society, and a belief in the omnipotence of administrative decisions. Genuinely scientific policymaking combines a strictly objective approach to reality with recognition of activism and initiative displayed by the masses, by social classes, and by individuals. This approach is a guarantee against subjectivism in any form.

References in periodicals archive ?
In other words, it has the disadvantages of subjectivism, which I will come back to.
The aim of this paper is to provide an accurate definition of subjectivism and, in the light shed by this definition, to explain why it cannot accommodate most of the features that traditionally are associated with it.
However, the Level-3 fair value estimates involve the highest levels of management judgment and subjectivism, so they hold significant potentials for abuse and ethical concern.
It is the persistence of a particular type of crisis that he calls "bureaucratic subjectivism.
Were it not for the inherent subjectivism of these matters, we would be tempted to claim that public education is an externality all right, but a negative not a positive one.
He notes that the one question about culture is followed by a defensive question about the combating of the evils of modern culture--its subjectivism and moral relativism.
Indeed, this ability to surpass the nihilistic consequences of subjectivism contributes to the current political relevance of Gadamer's thought.
The tensions between the representation of reality in art and individual subjectivism lie at the heart of Burwick's discussion.
The main difference is in the recognition of the limits of objectivism and the rehabilitation of subjectivism -- and subjectivity -- even within the realm of the hard sciences.
Joseph Pappin III, in his "Freedom and Authority: Burke and Sartre in Dialogue," helps pinpoint "the abiding distinction" between Jean-Paul Sartre's "radical subjectivism and the primacy given to the 'will"' and Edmund Burke's "realistic, intellectualistic political thought applied to man's situation," stressing "political reason as against "the false utopianism" sought by Sartre.
This approach is a far cry from no rules at all, which is called subjectivism and in the long run can lead to total chaos).
One can, however, reproach L'imbroglio ethnique for occasionally adopting a reductive subjectivism that assimilates culture exclusively to identity discourses and to ideologies that actors produce to define themselves.