Subjectivism


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Subjectivism

 

a world view that ignores the objective approach to reality and denies the existence of objective laws of nature and society. Subjectivism is one of the main epistemological sources of idealism. In essence, it grants primacy to the role played by the subject in various spheres of activity and in the cognitive process above all. The concomitant abstraction of thought, which does not correspond to the nature of objects, leads ultimately to a divorce from reality, subjective blindness, agnosticism, and relativism (see V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 29, p. 322).

Subjectivism has been expounded by such philosophers as G. Berkeley, D. Hume, and J. G. Fichte; the philosophy of I. Kant is also marked by subjectivist concepts. In the bourgeois philosophy of the 19th and 20th centuries, subjectivism has been a basic principle of such idealist schools of thought as neo-Kan-tianism, empiriocriticism, philosophy of life, pragmatism, neopositivism, and existentialism.

According to Marxist philosophy, which rejects subjectivism, the subject’s active role in practical life and in the cognitive process presupposes the existence of a dialectical relationship between subject and object as well as the existence of an objective reality that has its own laws and is independent of consciousness. Various distortions of Marxism-Leninism have their foundations in subjectivism. Right-wing revisionism, proceeding from a subjectivist understanding of practice, eclectically attempts to combine the principles of Marxist philosophy with subjectivist philosophical conceptions, such as existentialism and pragmatism. The left-wing revision of Marxism-Leninism is an attempt to replace its creative theory with a system of subjectively interpreted dogmas that serve as a justification for voluntarism.

In the political sphere, subjectivism is reflected in policy decisions based on arbitrary, unscientific principles, a contemptuous attitude toward the laws of society, and a belief in the omnipotence of administrative decisions. Genuinely scientific policymaking combines a strictly objective approach to reality with recognition of activism and initiative displayed by the masses, by social classes, and by individuals. This approach is a guarantee against subjectivism in any form.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
We are perhaps too used to thinking about whether subjectivism is quite generally true and need to remind ourselves that the Modest Claim in no way entails that subjectivism is generally true.
But just as value subjectivism tends to undermine commitment to family and religion, so too does it eat away at national loyalties.
As mentioned earlier, epistemology speaks directly to the sources of knowledge in research, whether knowledge comes from local knowledge or ideas imposed by the researcher--the former describing constructionism and the latter subjectivism. Cross' original theory does not define African American identity and shows no intentionality in constructing a definition through interaction between subject and object.
Personal subjectivism is the notion that truth and morality are creations of the mind of the individual, or matters of personal feelings or opinion.
The idea of the German physicist, Werner Heisenberg--who argued that when subatomic entities are being studied it is not possible to gain an accurate view of them because the study itself interferes with the results the student will gain--tended to give support to subjectivism, whereas the retort, that if so then Heisenberg's own idea could not be taken to be right but a mere distortion, gave the objectivist stance backing.
"The General Implications of Subjectivism in Economics," in What Should Economists Do?, Indianapolis: Liberty Press
Another aspect of the book's first merit is showing how Objectivism avoids the false dichotomy of intrinsicism and subjectivism. Intrinsicism holds that objective truths exist "out there" and we need only passively receive truth in our minds, and subjectivism holds that our beliefs about something make it true (pp.
In what sense is Marxism not based on "positivistic subjectivism"?
The three further chapters of the book juxtapose later Rahnerian and Heideggerian texts in order to expand the contrast between modern subjectivism and Rahner's aesthetic sublime.
Subjectivism and Objectivism in the History of Economic Thought
It showcases some of the latest work by Japanese scholars on a wide variety of subjects within the ambit of 'subjectivism' and 'objectivism'.
James proposes an initial 'refuge' (James, 1979b: 'DD' p 128) from this outlook, in the form of a view called subjectivism. According to this view, the events that transpire in the universe are secondary to the feelings they motivate in us.