Submarine Warfare


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Submarine Warfare

 

a conventional term referring to combat waged by submarines.

Submarine warfare was used extensively in World War I and World War II. In World War I the losses to the merchant fleets of the warring states from submarine attacks totaled 14 million gross registered tons and 192 warships. Germany used submarines not only against warships but also, in defiance of the norms of international law, against the merchant ships of enemy and neutral states. After the war, the question of prohibiting submarine warfare was discussed at conferences in Washington in 1921–22 and London in 1930 and 1936. At the Washington Conference of 1921–22, Great Britain presented a proposal to ban the use of submarines. It was not adopted, being opposed, in particular, by the United States.

In 1936 the United States, Great Britain (with its dominions and India), France, Italy, and Japan signed the London Protocol, which contained rules for submarine actions with respect to merchant ships in wartime. The USSR joined the protocol in 1937 as did a number of other states, such as Belgium, the Netherlands, the Scandinavian countries, and Germany. According to the protocol, submarines in actions related to merchant vessels were to be guided by the norms of international law in the same way as surface warships. If a merchant ship stubbornly refused to halt after an appropriate warning to do so or if the ship offered resistance to being inspected or searched, only then could it be sunk or prevented from traveling further. However, stipulation was made that the passengers, crew, and ship documents be delivered first to a safe place. In World War II losses to the merchant fleet from submarines totaled more than 22 million gross registered tons and about 400 warships. Fascist Germany and Japan, which had signed the agreements, violated them many times.

References in periodicals archive ?
Cumulative result of using Anti Submarine Warfare ships and aircraft, nuclear submarines and the satellites was a mythical absurdity about Saad operating in Pakistani western waters.
"The AAVs and the newly procured AW159 anti submarine warfare helicopters will be one of the major highlights of this year's PN Anniversary celebration," Zata said.
The custom of Royal Navy subs flying Jolly Rogers began after a British admiral called submarine warfare "underhanded, unfair, and damned un-English".
Drawing on government records and photos from various countries, as well as secondary sources, Hodos, an intelligence analyst, recounts GermanyAEs long-range submarine campaign against North America in 1918, as Germany made its first attempt to wage submarine warfare during World War I using long-range U-boats, U-Kreuzers, that attacked Allied shipping off the coasts of the US, Canada, and West Africa, particularly the U-156, which raided commerce and transported captured cargo.
In the first four chapters of Antisubmarine Warfare from 1943, the authors evaluate submarine warfare and antisubmarine warfare during World War II in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
This thriving encounter of detecting Indian Navy Submarine at High Seas and its continued surveillance not only speaks very high of Pakistan Navy's Anti Submarine Warfare capability but also reflects the commitment and resolve to defend sea frontiers of Pakistan.
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The entire exercise will see officers of both the services being deployed on each other's vessels as well as take on aspects like anti- submarine warfare, anti- piracy among others.
But the bigger picture is that the story of the Lusitania offers insights on the maritime world of its times, which include the rise of the luxury liner, the effects of submarine warfare, and struggles for control of the Atlantic.
Captain O'Connell discusses the evolution of submarine warfare theory and then assesses operational effectiveness during most of the first half of the 20th century.
He also traces the major developments in this period: the gradual decline of the Royal Navy and the growth of the US Navy, the emergence of submarine warfare in the 1914-1918 war and the attempts by Germany (Imperial and Nazi) and Japan to create navies that could dominate the world.
Germany suspended its unrestricted submarine warfare, but resumed attacking enemy ships near the end of 1916.

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