Subordination


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Subordination

 

hypotaxis, formally expressed dependency of one syntactic element (word or sentence) upon another.

By subordination, two types of syntactic units are formed—word combinations and complex sentences. The word in a word combination that determines the linkage by virtue of its grammatical, word-formational, or lexical properties is the main word; the word that realizes the linkage in some prescribed form is the dependent word. Determinative, circumstantial, objective, and other types of syntactic relationships may exist between the units.

In Russian, the basic types of subordination are agreement, government, and parataxis. Indicators of subordination are case endings (sometimes with prepositions) or, as in adverbs, the invariability itself of words. Supplementary means of subordination are intonation and word order. Subordination may be strong and manifested of necessity (as in chitat’ knigu,“to read a book”; s”ekhat’ s gory,“to descend from the mountain”) or weak (as in the agreement in khoroshaia kniga,“a good book”). From a lexical standpoint, subordination may be free, limited, or, in phraseology, closed. In a complex sentence, subordination acts as the link between the main clause and subordinate clause. Indicators include subordinating conjunctions, relative pronouns, tense and mood forms of the verb-predicate in the subordinate clause, and word order. In cases of mutual subordination, there is an indicator of subordination in both clauses. As a grammatically expressed relationship of dependency, subordination stands in contrast to coordination.

I. N. KRUCHININA


Subordination

 

(in Russian, primykanie), a type of syntactic construction in which verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and nouns are the main words, and adverbs, adverbial participles, degrees of comparison, and infinitives are dependent words. Examples are seen in chitat’gromko (“to read loudly”), poitipoguliat’ (“to go for a walk”), ochen’ veselo (“very gaily”), and slegka grustnyi (“slightly sad”). Subordination is a grammatical linkage, not just a semantic or positional one. This is true even though subordination is expressed not by changes in the forms of words—the dependent words are not inflected—but by categorial indicators linked to parts of speech. Subordination is sometimes defined as a linkage that is neither agreement nor government. Various kinds of modifier relationships are established between main words and dependent words by subordination and therefore dependent words usually function as adverbial modifiers in a sentence.


Subordination

 

in physiology, the influence that the central nervous system constantly exerts on the functioning of the peripheral nervous system as well as the influence of any one division of the central nervous system on the functioning of other divisions (the latter phenomenon is called intercentral subordination). Subordination causes changes in the threshold of stimulation, chronaxie, refractory period, adaptation, lability, and rate of propagation of excitation. I. M. Sechenov, in 1863, was the first to observe that the central nervous system influences the excitability of peripheral nerves. The term “subordination” was proposed by the French physiologist L. Lapicque (1928), who studied the effect of the central nervous system on the chronaxie of peripheral nerves.

References in periodicals archive ?
It extends the vision of the phenomenon to understand the determination of the process and its relationship with other phenomena, including, gender subordination in the family scenario.
A sequence [{[b.sub.n]}.sup.[infinity].sub.n=1] of complex numbers is said to be a subordinating factor sequence if, whenever f(z) of the form (1.1), [[alpha].sub.1] = 1 is analytic, univalent and convex in U, we have the subordination given by
avoids this connection as a point of focus, limiting himself to the immediate point that, for those associated with what he calls the "Grudem-Ware doctrine," the eternal subordination of the Son means that the second Person of the Trinity is eternally "subordinate in authority" to the Father.
Mitchell had argued to the court that the mortgage was subordinated by virtue of the subordination agreement signed by the mortgagee, Clyde Sheek; in 2005.
The rating is two notches lower compared to the bank's adjusted standalone credit strength to reflect the instrument's subordination, the lack of "point-of-non-viability" clauses and the debt's structural subordination as it is issued by the holding company.
In case the function g is univalent, the above subordination is equivalent to: f (0) = g(0) and f (E) [subset] g(E).
The "shameful and disgraceful" position Lebanon adopted at the United Nations Security Council was "of a piece with Amal's subordination to the Syrian regime and ...
If you own commercial rental property, your bank or other lender may request--or demand that you include a subordination clause in your leases.
(ii) If H (z, [zeta]) = H (z) and f (z, [zeta]) = f (z), the strong subordination becomes the usual notion of subordination.
Or given two functions F(z) and G(z), which are analytic in U, the function F(z) is said to be subordination to G(z) in U if there exists a function h(z), analytic in U with h(0) = 0 and [absolute value of h(z)] < 1 such that F(z) = G(h(z)).
(1) Equitable subordination provides bankruptcy courts with the authority to place the first lien position of a self-enriching secured creditor in an inferior position to that of other secured or unsecured creditors.