drug addiction

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Related to Substance dependency: substance dependence disorder

drug addiction

or

drug dependency

a chronic physical and psychological compulsion or craving to take a drug, in which the person concerned must continue to take the drug in order to avoid unpleasant physical and psychological effects resulting from withdrawal from the drug. Compare DRUG TAKING FOR PLEASURE.

Many drugs can be associated with drug addiction and dependency, including sedatives (e.g. barbiturates), the opiates (e.g. heroin) and alcohol (see ALCOHOLISM). Drugs which do not lead to dependency include cannabis, the hallucinogens (e.g. lysergic acid – LSD), and stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines. While so-called ‘hard drugs’ such as heroin attract the main attention of governments and researchers, addiction to alcohol is far more widespread. The indiscriminate medicinal use of barbiturates in the 1960s has also been responsible for much drug dependency. More recently, benzodiazepines (notably Valium) replaced barbiturates as a new source of medically induced drug dependency The control of addictive drugs has been a major concern of Western governments and the United Nations, but with mixed success. While government control of dangerous drugs reflects public concern, what needs explanation is why some non-addictive drugs, such as cannabis, are illegal, whilst other, more addictive drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, are legal. Various explanations are offered for this phenomenon, including: the difficulty of controlling long-established drugs, and the occurrence of MORAL PANICS and mass media DEVIANCE AMPLIFICATION, and hence heightened controls and policing in relation to newly introduced drugs, particularly when these are associated with other forms of social DEVIANCE, and/or with lower status and ethnic minority groups.

Drug Addiction

Confessions of an English Opium-Eater
Thomas de Quincy tells of his opium addiction, his nightmarish experiences, and the sufferings of withdrawal. [Br. Lit.: Haydn & Fuller, 155]
Holmes, Sherlock
the famous sleuth, addicted to cocaine. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 473]
Man with the Golden Arm, The
Chicagoan Frankie Machine, a failure, takes to morphine, murders his supplier, and hangs himself. [Am. Lit.: Benét, 632]
Tyrone, Mary
addicted to morphine after childbirth, thanks to her husband’s choice of a quack doctor. [Am. Lit.: O’Neill Long Day’s Journey into Night in Sobel, 431]
Valley of the Dolls
portrays self-destruction of drug addicted starlets. [Am. Lit.: Valley of the Dolls]
References in periodicals archive ?
However, mental health and substance dependency issues certainly can hinder the ability or willingness to attain and retain employment.
The study also looked at inmates who had mental health issues as well as substance abuse or substance dependency issues.
Children who began experimenting with drugs and alcohol before puberty and subsequently developed substance dependency disorders (SDDs) were significantly more likely to have DSM-IV diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or personality disorder, and were significantly more likely to have been in jail, with a trend toward more burglary, arrests, and charges, said Dr.
Children who began using with drugs and alcohol before puberty and later developed substance dependency disorders (SDDs) were significantly more likely to have DSM-IV diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or personality disorder, and to have been in jail, with a trend toward more burglary, arrests, and charges.
She added: "Some 56 per cent of detainees met diagnostic criteria for at least one substance dependency disorder and 20 per cent were experiencing substance use disorder.
The Twelve-Step Facilitation Handbook: A Systematic Approach to Recovery from Substance Dependency
The majority of sufferers of either mental disorders or substance dependency did not seek professional help for their problems and one out of every five person who suffered from a mental disorder or substance dependence reported a perceived unmet need in receiving help.
Substance dependency is a response to a substance characterized by three features: tendency to use more substance, physiological and psychological changes when the substance is withdrawn, and an overwhelming desire to continue using the substance despite negative consequences.
It revealed 2,200 Midland teachers had called, of whom seven per cent had serious problems resulting from stress at work which made them suicidal, clinically depressed, or led to substance dependency.
However, before taking any action with respect to terminating a substance-dependent employee, employers should be forewarned that although some states do not provide protection to substance abusers, other states consider substance dependency a protected disability.
The grants will help create 141 new or rehabilitated units of affordable housing to serve a variety of individuals and families including seniors, the homeless, and those recovering from substance dependency.
The Board also approved amendments to: Eligibility and Disciplinary Sanctions for Nurses with Substance Abuse, Misuse, Substance Dependency, or other Substance Use Disorder; Disciplinary Sanctions for Fraud, Theft, and Deception; Disciplinary Sanctions for Lying and Falsification; Disciplinary Guidelines for Criminal Conduct; and Guidelines for Physical and Psychological Evaluations.

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