" of modern in the Victorian mind was facilitated by the evolution of liberal thought, with Social Darwinism and new ideas of religion included.
Due to this deficiency, Firth finds that '[t]here always remains a doubt whether a native would really have thought out and performed an experiment in the way [Codrington] describes.' (1967: 178) Keesing ends his seminal 1984 article on the same note, urging scholars with the needed command of Oceanic languages and comparative sociological vision to 'connect the substantivizations
of mana in metaphysical terms with the worldly circumstances that have given rise to such cosmologies' and to anchor mana 'in social systems rather than disembodied philosophies' (1984: 152-53).
Lehmann (1988) and Mackenzie (1987) are two representative accounts pertaining to deverbalization and substantivization aspect of nominalizations, respectively:
In other words, loss of external categories in deverbalization processes is more harmonic than loss of internal categories, and acquisition of external categories in substantivization is more harmonic than acquisition of internal ones.
The situation for substantivization can be similarly captured through conflicting FuncFaith and LexFaith constraint subhierarchies, which are represented in (5) and (6), respectively:
Missing in both English and Dutch are specific affixes which serve to create concrete nonpersonal object nouns, that is, nouns which would have the meaning 'thing which has been Xed' or 'thing which one Xes.' Dutch also lacks a specific suffix that is parallel to English -ee, but it compensates for this lack by using the first strategy: substantivization
through the addition of -e to the passive participle allows reference to the person who is affected by an action.
However, for the purposes of this article, I now turn to a different aspect of the Fijian situation which illuminates the nominalization and substantivization of 'mana,' showing how discourse about diminution and loss has turned mana into a marker of social decline.
Keesing offered an argument about the social forces behind the substantivization of mana in Polynesian languages, writing that it was related to hereditary chieftainships' transformation 'into an aristocratic class' with a correlated 'creation of developed theologies ...
As Nicholas Thomas has written, 'a general cultural potential for substantivization' exists, 'but the process of naming and reifying customs and beliefs takes place in a particularly marked and conspicuous fashion in the course of colonial history' (Thomas 1992: 65).
and Anthropological Discourse: The Transformation of Practices into Institutions in Neotraditional Pacific Societies.' In History and Tradition in Melanesian Anthropology, edited by J.
There can be no doubt that this model of Maori socio-political organisation to some extent corresponds with the structure and practice of twentieth-century Maori society, but the widespread reification of the model, its substantivization
`out of time'(4), its projection into nineteenth century and pre-colonial history as well as its perpetuation into the present, cannot be justified.
and Anthroplogical Discourse: The Transformation of Practices into Institutions in Neotraditional Pacific Societies.