# Substitution Method

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## substitution method

[‚səb·stə′tü·shən ‚meth·əd]
(physics)
Any method of measurement, such as substitution weighing, in which a quantity is determined by substituting for it a known quantity which produces the same effect.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Substitution Method

a method for eliminating systematic measurement errors caused by errors in the measuring instrument used to compare the quantity being measured with a standard. In the substitution method the value of the quantity being measured is not found indirectly, from a reading of the measuring instrument, but rather from the magnitude of the standard, which is selected or regulated in such a way that the reading of the measuring instrument remains the same when the quantity being measured is replaced by the standard. For example, when weighing an object on a beam balance, the object is taken from the pan and replaced by weights of equal total weight; the balance will show the previous reading (the Borda method). The substitution method is extensively used in measuring electrical quantities, such as resistance, capacitance, and inductance.

K. P. SHIROKOV

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There was significantly discrepancy (p<0.05) in the energy estimates of corn silage calculated by different substitution ratios when using single substitution method. In addition, the energy estimates of corn silage derived at the substitution ratio of 30% were more similar to direct method- and regression method-derived estimates (p>0.05).
Furthermore, an adaptive technique applied to the LSB substitution method is proposed in [15], in which the correlation among neighbouring pixels is exploited and used to estimate the degree of smoothness.
Laplace substitution method for solving partial differential equations involving mixed partial derivatives.
Three samples each of corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP) and wheat bran (WB) were assayed for AMEn by substitution method using 21-days-old broilers.
It was clear that he found the method of elimination easier as it is less demanding in terms of algebraic manipulation compared to the substitution method learnt in the previous three lessons.
A phylogenetic tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method with the Kimura 2-parameter nucleotide substitution method using 1000 bootstrap replicates in the MEGA version 3.1 [10].
al., introduced the first trial of DNA based Cryptography in which a substitution method using libraries of distinct one time pads, each of which defines a specific, randomly generated, pair-wise mapping and an XOR scheme utilizing molecular computation and indexed, random key strings are used for encryption [2].
When talking about methods in this domain, the least-significant-bit (LSB) substitution method is the most straightforward.
The coefficient matrix [M] is not a tridiagonal matrix, so it cannot be solved with the efficient forward-elimination and backward- substitution method directly.
Testing at the fan manufacturer's facility should include performance testing; either AMCA 210 or 250 as applicable, sound testing, completed via the substitution method based on volume and conditions.
As a consequence, the backward substitution method need not be applied here due to the property of the matrix being identical.

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