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Any layer underlying the true soil.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



remnants of an ethnic group’s former native language that have been retained in the language replacing the first, original language. The term also designates the original language itself, for example, the Celtic substratum in French, the Dacian substratum in Rumanian, the pre-Indo-European substratum—Hurrian-Urartaean—in Armenian, and the Iranian substratum in some Uzbek dialects.

The influence of the substratum may be observed at both the phonetic and phonological levels, in changes in articulation and in the modification of distinctive features. In grammar, it may be observed in functional changes in the original grammatical forms and in loan translations of syntactic constructions; in the lexicon, it is manifested by borrowings and caiques.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Other cultch characteristics, including substratum contour and tertiary (i.e., collective) shell arrangement, are less well studied.
Sema3A Inhibits MDA-MB-231 Cell Motility at High Substratum Concentrations but Enhances Motility at Lower Substratum Concentrations.
The pennate diatoms were attached to the substratum and included Cocconeis placentula, Amphora ovalis, Gyrosigma sp., Placoneis elginensis, and Nitzschia sigmoidea (Figures 4(a)-4(h)).
During settlement, the cyprid uses the antennules to walk over the substratum in search of an attachment site, until it finally and irreversibly cements itself and commences metamorphosis (Fig.
The tests were carried out in pilot reactors with 230 litres of usable volume by applying different retention times of the substratum in the reactor (23 or 40 days) and temperatures.
Fruiting body (Fig 1) was divided into several sections starting from the substratum and each section was marked as follows: A -soil, B--volva, C--stipe, 10 mm from the substratum, D--stipe, 20 mm from the substratum, E--stipe, 30 mm from the substratum, F--stipe, 40 mm from the substratum, G--stipe, 50 mm from the substratum, H--stipe, 60 mm from the substratum, I-stipe, 70 mm from the substratum, J--pileus at the center of the stipe, K--10 mm away from the center of the pileus, L--20 mm away from the center of the pileus, M--margin of the pileus.
The nickel layers mixed with aluminum lower the stresses between the substratum and the coating and are used as anchor layers to promote the good adherence between the substratum and the coating which give the properties to the piece (Xanthopoulou, et al., 2014).
A key focus is how to maintain walkways and how the BSC can help reduce walkway risk," said David Collette, president Substratum. "We have a dense curriculum ensuring our graduates bring immediate practical value to their customers.
In general, wave-protected sites occurred on the northeastern side of Robinson Crusoe Island, where the substratum is characterized by low bottom relief with small boulders, cobbles, and sand.
The snails, Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) and Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck) (Gastropoda: Viviparidae), were collected from the substratum of the pond using a dip net attached with a long handle and were maintained in the laboratory in plastic tubs containing dried sediments and dead terrestrial plant leaves.
(2-4) Among the cited factors, the exposed area has not been well explored and it is important to point that the area exposed to biofilm development is connected to the substratum position such as either horizontally or vertically.
The "nothing" of the quantum vacuum, the ground state of energy for the universe from which all of the universe's properties arose, possesses immaterial curvature and structure and obeys the law of quantum physics and thus "is filled with potential particles, unit pairs of virtual matter and anti-matter, as well as potential properties at the quantum level." This, observes Boi (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Centre de Mathematiques, France), makes the quantum vacuum the "immaterial substratum of all physical existence." He takes the reader on a grand tour of the physics and mathematics of the quantum vacuum, particularly in relation to the interaction between geometry and physics at the quantum level.