Succinate Dehydrogenase


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succinate dehydrogenase

[¦sək·sə‚nāt ‚dē·hī′dräj·ə‚nās]
(biochemistry)
A key enzyme in the citric acid cycle; it oxidizes succinate to fumarate.

Succinate Dehydrogenase

 

an enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that is prevalent in plant and animal cells, where it is localized in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Succinate dehydrogenase is one of the important enzymes involved in energy metabolism. In the tricarboxylic acid cycle, it catalyzes the reversible oxidation of succinic acid (succinate) to fumaric acid. The oxidation of one mole of succinic acid results in the synthesis of two moles of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The electrons are transmitted from succinate dehydrogenase to the respiratory chain through coenzyme Q.

Succinate dehydrogenase, isolated in 1954 by the American scientist T. Singer, is structurally a flavoprotein; the protein constituent is covalently bound to the coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The enzyme contains eight atoms of nonheme iron as well as labile sulfur atoms. Sulfhydryl groups are believed to constitute part of the active center of succinate dehydrogenase.

REFERENCES

Lehninger, A. Biokhimiia. Moscow, 1974. (Translated from English.)
Singer, T. P., E. B. Kearney, and W. C. Kenney. “Succinate Dehydrogenase.” In Advances in Enzymology and Related Subjects of Biochemistry, vol. 37. New York, 1973.

V. V. ZUEVSKII

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Germline mutations and variants in the succinate dehydrogenase genes in Cowden and Cowden-like syndromes.
-ve: negative; +ve: positive; [sup.18]F-FDOPA: [sup.18]F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine; PHEO: pheochromocytoma; PGL: paraganglioma; A: adrenaline; D: dopamine; NA: noradrenaline; FH: fumarate hydratase gene; HIF2A: hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha gene; MAX: Myc-associated protein X gene; NF1: neurofibromatosis type 1 gene; PHD1: prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 1 gene; RET: rearranged during transfection gene; SDHA: succinate dehydrogenase subunit A gene; SDHA: succinate dehydrogenase subunit A protein; SDHB: succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene; SDHB: succinate dehydrogenase subunit B protein; SDHC: succinate dehydrogenase subunit C gene; SDHD: succinate dehydrogenase subunit D gene; VHL: von Hippel- Lindau gene.
[5] Nonstandard abbreviations: OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man; TCA, tricarboxylic acid; IDH, isocitrate dehydrogenase; SDH, succinate dehydrogenase; FH, fumarate hydratase; PHD, prolyl hydroxylase domain protein; HIF, hypoxia-inducible factor; NRF2, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; NQO1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1.
Figure 6: Succinate dehydrogenase activity, triglyceride, interleukin 6 (IL6), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations, and hematoxylin and eosin staining in liver of ApoE KO mice treated with 0.15% cholesterol diet and Aster glehni extract.
Analysis of data showed a decrease in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity by 1.5- and 2.6-times in group 2 and group 3, respectively, compared to group 1 (control) (Table 2).
Partial inhibition of brain succinate dehydrogenase by 3-nitropropionic acid is sufficient to initiate striatal degeneration in rat.
The activities of the citric acid cycle enzymes like succinate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and the activity of cytochrome c oxidase the enzyme of the electron transport chain is known to be inhibited by cypermethrin (Reddy and Yellamma, 1991a).
The hydrolytic enzymes such as Protease (EC 3.4.21.92), Amylase (EC 3.21.1) and respiratory enzymes such as Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), Polyphenoloxidase (EC 1.14.18.1), Succinate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.5.1) and nitrate reductase (1.7.1.1) were studied in eighteen different macroalge belonging to three different species such as Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.
Liver and muscle mitochondria were isolated and assayed for the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (13) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (18).
The capacity of classic markers for mitochondrial density, ie, the capacity of citrate synthase (CS) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), as well the capacity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD), was determined in homogenized muscle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of nonexercising healthy young (age 20 [+ or -] 2 yr) subjects (31 women, 7 men).
3NP has long been known to inhibit succinate dehydrogenase activity of the Krebs cycle and the respiratory chain in mitochondria.