Sudebnik of 1497

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Sudebnik of 1497

 

a collection of laws, instrumental in the elimination of feudal fragmentation, in the centralization of the Russian state, and in the creation of Russian law.

The sources of the Sudebnik of 1497 were the Russkaia Pravda, the Pskov Sudnaia Gramota, ustavnye gramoty (administrative charters given to local administrators), ukases of the grand princes, and customary law, the norms of which were revised in order to take account of socioeconomic change. For the most part, the Sudebnik contained procedural norms. It established a single system of state judicial bodies, defined their authority and place in the judicial hierarchy, and regulated court fees. It broadened the range of actions recognized as criminally punishable—for example, sedition, sacrilege (tserkovnaia tat’ba), and slander—and set forth a new conception of crime and of especially dangerous crime. It established an inquisitorial procedure and provided for capital punishment, public flogging, and other harsh punishments.

In protection of feudal landownership, the Sudebnik of 1497 placed limitations on servitudes, extended the period allowed for protection of a violated right with respect to princely lands, and introduced public flogging for destroying boundary markers and for trespass on princely, boyar, and monastery lands (and a fine for the same offenses on peasant lands). It introduced the payment of a pozhiloe upon a peasant’s departure from the service of a feudal lord (seeVYKHOD KREST’IANSKII) and set the period around November 26—St. George’s Day—as the only time at which peasants could move from one lord to another.

PUBLICATION

Sudebniki XV-XVI vv. Moscow-Leningrad, 1952. Pages 13–108.
References in periodicals archive ?
This, for instance, was the case with regard to the 1768 edition of the 1550 Sudebnik.
76) Sudebnik tsaria i velikogo kniazia Ivana Vasil 'evicha, zakony iz iustinianovykh knig, ukazy dopolnitel'nye k Sudebniku i Tamozhennyi ustav tsaria i velikogo kniazia Ivana Vasil'evicha (St.
Douglas, Constitutional Foundations of Russian Federalism, IV SUDEBNIK 823-68 (1999).
5) His 1965 dissertation, "Muscovite Law and Society: The Ulozhenie of 1649 as a Reflection of the Political and Social Development of Russia since the Sudebnik of 1589," was never published but laid the foundation for all Richard's subsequent research.
In a 1962 article, Horace Dewey reviewed these provisions and concluded that the 1550 Sudebnik had elaborated the procedure on dueling in so much greater detail than the 1497 Sudebnik that it appeared that the procedure was still "evolving.
Section 48 of the 1497 Sudebnik and Section 16 of the 1550 code also provide that a defendant, having requested a duel, may place the sum for which he is being sued "at the cross.
Most of these provisions on duels, however, appear prominently in the opening sections of the Sudebniki ; and as Dewey points out, new provisions on dueling were added to the 1550 Sudebnik.
Dewey is also correct that section 15 of the 1550 Sudebnik refers to requesting a duel for a loan or "in any matter whatsoever" (v kakove dele ni budi).
Renaud, "The Legal Force of the 1832 Svod zakonov," Sudebnik 2, 1 (1997): 83-124.
john Chrysostom but mostly by Russian authors), the Stoglav, the 1550 Sudebnik and 1649 Ulozhenie (law codes), and other well-known 16th-and 17th-century sources.
Dewey discusses the Sudebnik in "The 1550 Sudebnik as an Instrument of Reform," Jahrbucher fur Geschichte Osteuropas 10, 2 (1962): 161-80.