Sudetes


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Sudetes

(so͞odē`tēz), Czech Sudety, Ger. Sudeten, mountain range, along the border of the Czech Republic and Poland, extending c.185 mi (300 km) between the Elbe and Oder rivers. It is continued on the W by the Erzgebirge and on the E by the Carpathians. The Sudetes are divided into several groups. Farthest west, bordering on SE Germany, are the Lusatian (Pol. Luzické) Mts; along the border with SW Poland are, from west to east, the Isergebirge, the Krkonoše (Ger. Riesengebirge), the Adlergebirge, and the Jeseniky mts. The mineral deposits of the Sudetes are varied, but working mines have begun to decline in numbers. Industry flourishes on both slopes of the Sudetes; glass and porcelain, paper, and textiles are the chief products. Home industries have long held an important place in the Sudetes. There are also numerous mineral springs and resorts. The region was largely German-speaking until 1945. However, the term "Sudeten Germans" designated all the German-speaking population in the regions of Czechoslovakia bordering on Germany. The Sudetenland, home of these Germans for centuries, has always been a part of Bohemia. The Sudeten German party, founded by Konrad Henlein in 1934, was an offshoot of the German National Socialist party. In 1938 the party became Hitler's chief instrument in the events leading to the Munich PactMunich Pact,
1938. In the summer of 1938, Chancellor Hitler of Germany began openly to support the demands of Germans living in the Sudetenland (see Sudetes) of Czechoslovakia for an improved status. In September, Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudetenland.
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 and the annexation of the Sudetenland to Germany. The districts were recovered by Czechoslovakia in 1945, and most of the German population was summarily expelled.

Sudetes

 

a mountain system in Western Europe in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the German Democratic Republic. The Sudetes extend 310 km from northwest to southeast and consist of individual ranges and massifs separated by longitudinal tectonic depressions. An elevated edge of the Bohemian Massif, they rise to an elevation of 1,602 m, at Mount Snézka in the Krkonose Hory. The mountains are composed primarily of granites, gneisses, Paleozoic schists, and volcanic rocks, mainly basalts and porphyries; the depressions have Cretaceous sandstones and marls. The peaks are usually smooth, and the slopes are steep. The pectinate zone of the Krkonose Hory has cirques, glacial troughs, and other glacial formations. There are also outliers of weathered granites.

The Elbe, Oder, and Morava rivers originate in the Sudetes. The climate is temperate; the average January temperature ranges from –4°C to –7°C, and the average July temperature ranges from 8°C to 14°C. Annual precipitation is 700–1,400 mm; in the winter there is a constant snow cover. The lower parts of the slopes are covered with oak and beech forests; at higher elevations there are spruce and fir forests, which at elevations of 1,200–1,300 m give way to shrubs, meadows, and peat bogs.

The Krkonoše National Park, located in the Sudetes, lies in Poland and Czechoslovakia. The Sudetes have numerous balneological resorts, including the Polish resorts Lądek Zdrój, Polanica Zdrój, Duszniki Zdrój, Kudowa Zdrój, Cieplice Śląskie Zdrój, Szczawno Zdrój, and Sweradów Zdrój and the Czechoslovakian resort Janské Lázné. The mountains attract hikers and skiers.

K. G. TARASOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Despite the fact that the landslides in the Sudetes presently occur mainly in forested areas, located far from buildings, some of them have posed serious hazard in the past.
Effects of Land Abandonment and Climate Change on Soil Erosion--an Example from Depopulated Agricultural Lands in the Sudetes Mts., SW Poland.
La llamada anexion de Austria, el Anschluss, o la anexion de la region de los Sudetes, del territorio del Memel y luego el ataque a Polonia tuvieron lugar con la justificacion de que era preciso proteger la vida de los llamados Volksdeutschen, grupos de origen aleman que residian fuera de las fronteras de Alemania.
Lepidopteran species richness of alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mts.: effect of area and isolation.
Asi, por ejemplo, nos encontramos con organos judiciales domesticos que han declarado la nulidad de un tratado porque el consentimiento estatal habia sido obtenido mediante coaccion sobre el Estado, como cuando los tribunales holandeses tuvieron que resolver tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial si debian ser calificados como enemigos los checoslovacos residentes en la region de los Sudetes que habian sido convertidos en alemanes por el Tratado entre Alemania y Checoslovaquia de 1938: ante este caso, las instancias judiciales domesticas rechazaron aplicar el citado tratado, al considerarlo nulo por razon de la coaccion sufrida entonces por el Estado checoslovaco (45).
Imposible desconocer las anexiones de Austria y los Sudetes checoslovacos, esta ultima por la increible victoria diplomatica en Munich de la Alemania hitleriana; las invasiones de Etiopia y Libia por la Italia del Duce Mussolini; o la ocupacion de Manchuria por Japon.
Esta avidez ya no esta actualmente marcada en Alemania y en otros paises europeos tan solo por la shoah, como casi exclusivamente habia sido el caso por razones historicas evidentes, sino hoy por los crimenes cometidos por Stalin en la ex Union Sovietica, los crimenes y la represion en la ex Yugoslavia y luego en las consecuencias de las guerras tribales de los Balcanes o a causa de la expulsion y asesinato de los alemanes en el pais de los Sudetes, en Prusia del Este y en Silesia o en Espana a mas tardar con el impulso que le da Zapatero en 2007 dandole a la memoria un estatus casi constitucional y naturalmente que las largas, profundas y devastadoras heridas que han dejado las dictaduras, por ejemplo en Chile y en Argentina.
En agosto anuncio su intencion de apropiarse tambien del territorio de los Sudetes, la poblacion germana de Checoslovaquia.
El deseo de Adolfo Hitler de unificar la raza aria, le llevo a reclamar los Sudetes checoslovacos en 1938; y a exigirle al presidente Hacha, el 14 de marzo de 1939, una rendicion total so pena de aplastar a viva fuerza toda resistencia.
(2004): A drying-upward aeolian system of the Bohdasin Formation (Early Triassic), Sudetes of NE Czech Republic: record of seasonality and long-term palaeoclimate change.
Supongamos que guardamos la misma <<prudencia>> cuando, recomenzando su operacion, el fascismo aleman organice la revuelta en las provincias de los Sudetes y exija de nosotros la <<neutralidad>> entre estos insurgentes y el gobierno checo.
The Late Miocene-Pliocene uplift of the Sudetes along the SMF by some 150-200 m was postulated by Dyjor (1983), the size of Quaternary throw being estimated at 30-50 m and 50-70 m, in the NW and SE segments of the fault, respectively (Dyjor, 1993).