Sudetes

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Sudetes

(so͞odē`tēz), Czech Sudety, Ger. Sudeten, mountain range, along the border of the Czech Republic and Poland, extending c.185 mi (300 km) between the Elbe and Oder rivers. It is continued on the W by the Erzgebirge and on the E by the Carpathians. The Sudetes are divided into several groups. Farthest west, bordering on SE Germany, are the Lusatian (Pol. Luzické) Mts; along the border with SW Poland are, from west to east, the Isergebirge, the Krkonoše (Ger. Riesengebirge), the Adlergebirge, and the Jeseniky mts. The mineral deposits of the Sudetes are varied, but working mines have begun to decline in numbers. Industry flourishes on both slopes of the Sudetes; glass and porcelain, paper, and textiles are the chief products. Home industries have long held an important place in the Sudetes. There are also numerous mineral springs and resorts. The region was largely German-speaking until 1945. However, the term "Sudeten Germans" designated all the German-speaking population in the regions of Czechoslovakia bordering on Germany. The Sudetenland, home of these Germans for centuries, has always been a part of Bohemia. The Sudeten German party, founded by Konrad Henlein in 1934, was an offshoot of the German National Socialist party. In 1938 the party became Hitler's chief instrument in the events leading to the Munich PactMunich Pact,
1938. In the summer of 1938, Chancellor Hitler of Germany began openly to support the demands of Germans living in the Sudetenland (see Sudetes) of Czechoslovakia for an improved status. In September, Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudetenland.
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 and the annexation of the Sudetenland to Germany. The districts were recovered by Czechoslovakia in 1945, and most of the German population was summarily expelled.

Sudetes

 

a mountain system in Western Europe in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the German Democratic Republic. The Sudetes extend 310 km from northwest to southeast and consist of individual ranges and massifs separated by longitudinal tectonic depressions. An elevated edge of the Bohemian Massif, they rise to an elevation of 1,602 m, at Mount Snézka in the Krkonose Hory. The mountains are composed primarily of granites, gneisses, Paleozoic schists, and volcanic rocks, mainly basalts and porphyries; the depressions have Cretaceous sandstones and marls. The peaks are usually smooth, and the slopes are steep. The pectinate zone of the Krkonose Hory has cirques, glacial troughs, and other glacial formations. There are also outliers of weathered granites.

The Elbe, Oder, and Morava rivers originate in the Sudetes. The climate is temperate; the average January temperature ranges from –4°C to –7°C, and the average July temperature ranges from 8°C to 14°C. Annual precipitation is 700–1,400 mm; in the winter there is a constant snow cover. The lower parts of the slopes are covered with oak and beech forests; at higher elevations there are spruce and fir forests, which at elevations of 1,200–1,300 m give way to shrubs, meadows, and peat bogs.

The Krkonoše National Park, located in the Sudetes, lies in Poland and Czechoslovakia. The Sudetes have numerous balneological resorts, including the Polish resorts Lądek Zdrój, Polanica Zdrój, Duszniki Zdrój, Kudowa Zdrój, Cieplice Śląskie Zdrój, Szczawno Zdrój, and Sweradów Zdrój and the Czechoslovakian resort Janské Lázné. The mountains attract hikers and skiers.

K. G. TARASOV

References in periodicals archive ?
precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface run-off and subsurface run-off, are performed in the Sudety Mountains for the period of November 2002 - October 2015.
The research was conducted for the region of the Sudety Mountains (Fig.
In the paper, groundwater level variations, water balance and other related hydrological quantities were computed and analysed for the area of the Sudety Mountains.
1973, The occurrence and severity of water erosion of soil in the region of the Sudety Mountains in years 1965-1970 (in Polish), manuscript, Wroclaw.
1993, An attempt at application of selected morphometric methods to estimation of neotectonic movements in the Sudety Mountains, SW Poland, and their foreland.
1995, Neotectonic dependences of the Earth's surface of the east part of the Sudety Mountains on the base of the concentrated contour map.
1993, Morphologic effects of neotectonic movements in the Walbrzych Foothills, Middle Sudety Mountains, SW Poland.
We chose stations placed within The Sudety Mountains area, so that the vectors could cross the mountains.
1999, Gravity changes observed in the Polish part of Eastern Sudety Mountains and Fore-Sudetic Block, Exploration Geophysics, Remote Sensing and Environment, 6, No.
1994, Measurement and monitoring system for deformation investigation of lithosphere of natura and engineering objects in Sudety Mountains, Proceed.
The examples have been selected in order to show similarity of geological-physical conditions to those in the Sudety Mountains area, therefore, they may be an inspiration to new geological projects in this area.