Sudra

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Sudra

 

the lowest of the four ancient Indian varnas.

The Sudra varna, which became established during the formation of a class society in India, was made up of conquered tribes and of outsiders who were admitted into the community; the latter included persons who had become separated from their own tribes and persons whose tribes had broken up. In the ancient Indian slaveholding society, the Sudras were servants, artisans, and dependent and subordinate workers. In confirmation of their lowly status, they were forbidden to undergo the initiatory rite (”second birth”) that would entitle them to full civil rights; as a result, the Sudras, unlike the three higher varnas, were “once born.”

The Sudras were subject to many social restrictions: they were forbidden to own land, hold priestly or governmental office, or take part in politics or religious ceremonies. Their unequal status was reflected in various practices; for example, if convicted of a crime, Sudras were punished more severely than members of the higher varnas would be in similar circumstances, and money could be lent to them at unusually high rates of interest.

In the first centuries of the Common Era, the Sudras achieved higher status, and many restrictions disappeared; their social position came to resemble that of the Vaisyas. In various parts of India, castes were classified as Sudra regardless of their actual status, and the term lost a fixed meaning for India as a whole.

G. F. IL’IN

References in periodicals archive ?
Ram Sharan Sharma, Sudras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower ORDER down TO Circa A.
El sistema presenta algunas oposiciones importantes: la primera, brahmanes, ksatriyas y vaisyas frente a sudras, puesto que los primeros son dvijati, nacidos dos veces, son mas puros y se ocupan de labores propias de su clase, mientras que los otros son mas impuros y sirven a las otras castas.
A Sudra Critique of Hindutva Philosophy, Culture and Political Economy.
The author is free to interpret castes as "types" rejecting the Brahmanic caste division into four categories Brahmana (priestly class), Ksatriya (warrior class), Vaisya (business and cultivators' community) and Sudra (community of servants in general).
Matilda Churchill reporting from Bobbilli was shocked to realize that the Sudras, who were "least" in the Hindu hierarchy and were employed by her husband, refused to eat their food because her hat "happened to touch" their lunch pots.
28) Many (peasant) Sudras, who comprised the largest and lowest fourth caste, as well as untouchables and aboriginal peoples, incorporated the drinking of alcoholic beverages in their festivals, wedding feasts, and other celebrations such as those held in honor of the birth of sons.
Rajshekar, the Aryan Brahmins formed a four-caste hierarchy system--the Brahmins (the rulers), the Kshatriyas (the warriors), the Vaishyas (the merchants) and the Sudras (the workers).
Next are the Vaisyas, the merchants and cultivators, then the Sudras, who do manual labor.
Ocurrio con "Vieja ley", en realidad parte de Poemas sudras (1903), el primer libro de poemas militantes hecho en Mexico, por Rafael de Zayas Enriquez, padre del vanguardista Marius de Zayas.
The Aryans, or the three upper castes were not allowed to mix with the conquered Sudras.
La volonte des dieux etait de produire une connaissance accessible a toutes les castes de la societe et en particulier aux sudras les basses castes, touchables et intouchables, et aux femmes.
The space coded 10 represents those religious values held by Brahmans and no one else, the space coded 11 represents those values shared by Brahmans and Sudras, the space 01 those values held by Sudras and no one else, and 00 is the residual category.