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(so͝okho͞o`mē), Abkhaz Sukhum, city (2011 pop. 62,914), capital of AbkhaziaAbkhazia
or Apsny
, autonomous republic (2011 pop. 240,705), 3,300 sq mi (8,547 sq km), in Georgia, between the Black Sea and the Greater Caucasus. Sukhumi (the capital) and Gagra are the chief cities.
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, a region in W Georgia that has had de facto independence since the 1990. Located on the Black Sea, it is a port and a rail junction and a subtropical resort, whose sulfur baths have been frequented since Roman times. The Greek colony of Dioscurias was founded on the site of the city in the 6th cent. B.C. It was known as Sebastopolis under Rome and Byzantium. Russia acquired it in 1810 as the Turkish fortress of Sukhum-Kale. Sukhumi was the center of a guerrilla war between Georgian military units and Abkhazian irregulars in the early 1990s that led to de facto independence for the region. The Sukhumi Military Road crosses the Caucasus at the Klukhori Pass (9,235 ft/2,815 m) and continues SW to Sukhumi. It is c.120 mi (190 km) long.



a city in the Georgian SSR; capital of the Abkhazian ASSR. Port on the Black Sea; railroad station. Situated on a wide bay and on the slopes of hills with elevations to 140 m. Population, 118,000 (1976; 44,000 in 1939; 65,000 in 1959; 102,000 in 1970).

In the sixth century B.C., Greek merchants founded the city of Dioscurias near what is now Sukhumi. The city was conquered in the first century A.D. by the Romans, who erected the fortress of Sebastopolis in its place. In the early sixth century the city belonged to Byzantium. In Georgian chronicles it was called Tskhum, a name first mentioned in works dating from 736. In the 12th century it became a Genoese trading post, and in the 16th century it fell to Turkish feudal lords, who built a fortress there in 1724 and called it Sukhum-Kale (Sukhum Fortress).

Sukhumi was united with Russia in 1810 and made a city in 1847. After the liquidation of the Abkhazian Principality in 1864, it became the administrative center of the Sukhumi Military District. In 1903 a Social Democratic group was organized in Sukhumi as part of the Batumi committee of the RSDLP. The working people of Sukhumi participated in the revolutionary events of 1905 and 1917. In November 1917 the local body of the counterrevolutionary Transcaucasian Commissariat seized power in Sukhumi. In March 1918 the Bolshevik organizations of Abkhazia staged an armed uprising. Soviet power was proclaimed in Sukhumi on April 8; however, troops of the counterrevolutionary Transcaucasian Seim captured the city on May 17, 1918. The city was liberated on Mar. 4, 1921, by the working people of Abkhazia, with the support of the Red Army. In March 1921, Sukhumi became the capital of the Abkhazian ASSR.

During the years of socialist construction, Sukhumi has become an important cultural and economic center. It has industrial enterprises that process local agricultural goods, for example, an experimental tobacco combine, canneries, and an enterprise of the leather and footwear industry. The city also has a plant for the production of instruments and an experimental plant for the manufacture of gas equipment. The Sukhumi Hydroelectric Power Plant is situated on the Gumista River.

Educational institutions in Sukhumi include the D. I. Gulia Abkhazian Institute of Language, Literature, and History of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR, the Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, which has a monkey nursery, the Abkhazian branch of the Scientific Research Institute of Treatment at Health Resorts and Physiotherapy of the Ministry of Public Health of the Georgian SSR, a branch of the All-Union Institute of Tea and Subtropical Crops, and the Sukhumi Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR. The city also has a pedagogical institute, an industrial technicum, and schools of medicine, cultural education, music, and art. Notable museums include the Abkhazian State Museum of Local Lore, the house-museum of D. I. Gulia, and the S. Ia. Chanba Sukhumi Drama Theater.

Contemporary buildings in Sukhumi include the Government Building of the Abkhazian ASSR (1932–39, architects V. A. Shchuko and V. G. Gel’freikh), the Hotel Abkhazia (1938; architects Iu. S. Golubev, Iu. V. Shchuko), the Chanba Theater (1952; architect M. Chkhikvadze), and the Sukhumi branch of the All-Union Institute of Tea and Subtropical Crops (1968; architects S. Kipshidze and others).

Sukhumi is a climatic balneological health resort. Summers are very warm (average July temperature, 24°C), and winters are mild (average January temperature, 6°C). Annual precipitation is approximately 1,460 mm. Treatment includes climatotherapy and sea bathing (from May through October). Mineral waters, including nitric sulfate-chloride-sodium-calcium waters and weak hydrogen sulfide-methane waters, are used mostly for therapeutic baths. Health resorts in Sukhumi provide treatment for the same diseases and disorders as the Gagra health resorts. Lodging is available in sanatoriums, houses of rest, and guest houses.

Sukhumi is a major tourist center of the Caucasus, especially for cruises on the Black Sea. The city has 20 all-Union tourist routes and two tourist centers. Novyi Afon, situated near Sukhumi, is a popular tourist attraction.


Trapsh, M. M. Trudy, vol. 2.
Drevnii Sukhumi. Sukhumi, 1969.
[Sikharulidze, V. N.] Sukhumi. [Guidebook. Sukhumi, 1967.]
Po Zakavkaz’iu: Putevoditel. Moscow, 1972.


a port and resort in W Georgia, on the Black Sea: site of an ancient Greek colony. Pop.: 134 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Many homes left behind in Abkhazia's de facto capital, Sukhumi, have been occupied by ethnic Abkhaz families, while Abkhazia's ethnic-Georgian district of Gali is littered with abandoned and destroyed houses amid groves of hazelnut and tangerine trees.
And lastly, a "Strategic Partnership Agreement" between the Kremlin and Sukhumi guarantees Moscow far-reaching rights.
Protesters broke into the presidential administration building in the main city, Sukhumi, in May.
The snap elections were called after the ouster of president Alexander Ankvab, who quit on June 1 after protesters stormed his administration building in the regional capital Sukhumi.
Opposition supporters continued to control the administration building in the capital, Sukhumi, and also the state television station, Interfax reported, though Ankvab said on Tuesday that attempts to seize the station had been quashed.
(7) Como apuntaba Carl Bildt durante una reunion mantenida durante la Presidencia sueca de la UE, <<the practice of international peace mediation in places as Kirkuk, Mogadishu, Kandahar, Sukhumi and Gaza require informal non-state involvement, rather than state actors>>; HERRBERG, A., Unleashing the soft power potential of the European Union: International Peace mediation, Crisis Management Initiative, 1.12.2009, Copyright 2010 ISIS Europe, [http:// international-peacemediation].
(44) Johanna Popjanevski, From Sukhumi to Tskhinvali: The Path to War in Georgia, in THE GUNS OF AUGUST 2008, supra note 12, at 143, 145-49, 160 (noting that, before July 2008, the prevailing assumption was that conflict would break out over Abkhazia rather than South Ossetia).
[9.] Moyo S, Sukhumi C, Chidawanyika C and Binswanger Agricultural growth and land reform in Zimbabwe: Assessment and recovery options.
Earlier seismic studies have indicated that oil is largely concentrated in the Gudauta depression, between the Abkhaz capital of Sukhumi and Gagry resort, he added.
During Sunday's first ever visit by a Russian president to the regions since the war two years ago, Dmitry Medvedev met with the Abkhazian leader Sergei Bagapsh in Sukhumi, the main city of Abkhazia.
The disruption of both the Tbilisi Sukhumi railway and the road from Georgia into Russia has posed a significantly negative impact on Armenia.
Georgia stated that it no longer recognized the Moscow Ceasefire Agreement signed with Sukhumi in 1994 and the Sochi Agreement of 1992.