Sulfonation


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Related to Sulfonation: Sulphonation

sulfonation

[‚səl·fə′nā·shən]
(chemistry)
Substitution of ‒SO3 H groups (from sulfuric acid) for hydrogen atoms, for example, conversion of benzene, C6H6, into benzenesulfonic acid, C6H5SO3H.

Sulfonation

 

the substitution of a sulfo group (—SO3H) for a hydrogen atom attached to a carbon atom in an organic compound under the action of sulfuric acid or oleum. Sulfonation of aromatic compounds is most common—for example,

C6H6 + H2SO4 → C6H5SO3H + H2O

In the case of aliphatic compounds, the sulfo group is usually introduced indirectly, for example, by the exchange of a halogen atom in halide derivatives (1) or by the action of sulfur dioxide and chlorine on hydrocarbons upon irradiation with ultraviolet light (sulfochlorination), with subsequent hydrolysis (2):

(1) CH2═CH—CH2Cl + NaHSO3 → CH2═CH—CH2SO3H + NaCl

(In these formulas R represents a hydrocarbon radical—for example, an alkyl.)

Compounds that are not resistant to acids are sulfonated by sulfur trioxide bound in a complex—for example, in sulfur trioxide-dioxane:

Sulfonation and sulfochlorination are important industrial processes that are widely used in the production of sulfonic acids and ion-exchange resins.

B. L. DIATKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
the sulfonation rate was almost independent of reaction temperature.
The chemicals used for the sulfonation and preparation of the sulfonated sPS (SsPS) membranes are (a) chlorosulphonic acid ([CISO.sub.3.]H), 99% purity, (b) hydrochloric acid (HCL), 35% aqueous solution, (C) sodium hydroxide (NaOH), purity 97%, obtained as 20-40 mesh beads, (d) chloroform ([CHCl.sub.3]), 99.9% pure HPLC grade (e) ethylalcohol ([CH.sub.3] [CH.sub.2] [OH]) from J.T.
Sulfonation of 17[beta]-estradiol and inhibition of sulfotransferase activity by polychlorobiphenylols and celecoxib in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.
Rowell, "Cadmium ion sorption onto lignocellulosic biosorbent modified by sulfonation: the origin of sorption capacity improvement," Chemosphere, vol.
The sulfonation of diphenylether 22 with chlorosulfonic acid (ClS[O.sub.3]H) and afterward chlorination with thionyl chloride (SO[Cl.sub.2]) afforded the key 4-phenoxybenzensulfonyl chloride 24 with 95% overall yields.
As sulfated estrogens are unable to bind to the estrogen receptors, sulfonation of estrogens results in their inactivation.
[33], which showed rectifying characteristics that were enhanced with decreasing the degree of sulfonation and the thickness of the copolymer.
(10.) Suryani, Liu, YL, "In Situ Sulfonation and Formation of Polybenimidazole Nanocomposite Membranes Using Sulfonated Silica Nanoparticles for Fuel Cell Applications." J.
In the case of the sulfonated triblock co-polymer, the increasing the sulfonation level leads to the ability of the membrane to transport water and other polar molecules through the film.
Another surface treatment for higher performance is the sulfonation, which is offered by Freudenberg affiliate Japan Vilene Company.
Serum albumin FSGS Cys34 is albumin sulfonation on residue most Cys34 residue susceptible to adducts.
Therefore it was expected that the sulfonation of commercial CNSL will give a good surface acting agent like that obtained from dodecyl benzene.