Sulfonation


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to Sulfonation: Sulphonation

sulfonation

[‚səl·fə′nā·shən]
(chemistry)
Substitution of ‒SO3 H groups (from sulfuric acid) for hydrogen atoms, for example, conversion of benzene, C6H6, into benzenesulfonic acid, C6H5SO3H.

Sulfonation

 

the substitution of a sulfo group (—SO3H) for a hydrogen atom attached to a carbon atom in an organic compound under the action of sulfuric acid or oleum. Sulfonation of aromatic compounds is most common—for example,

C6H6 + H2SO4 → C6H5SO3H + H2O

In the case of aliphatic compounds, the sulfo group is usually introduced indirectly, for example, by the exchange of a halogen atom in halide derivatives (1) or by the action of sulfur dioxide and chlorine on hydrocarbons upon irradiation with ultraviolet light (sulfochlorination), with subsequent hydrolysis (2):

(1) CH2═CH—CH2Cl + NaHSO3 → CH2═CH—CH2SO3H + NaCl

(In these formulas R represents a hydrocarbon radical—for example, an alkyl.)

Compounds that are not resistant to acids are sulfonated by sulfur trioxide bound in a complex—for example, in sulfur trioxide-dioxane:

Sulfonation and sulfochlorination are important industrial processes that are widely used in the production of sulfonic acids and ion-exchange resins.

B. L. DIATKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The sulfonation of naphthalene was performed in a glass vessel of 1 L capacity in which 128 g (1 mol) of naphthalene was taken.
Functional group test, decrease in iodine number, increase in acid number and IR spectra confirms the sulfonation on the benzene ring (probably at ortho and para positions).
BAB is used by producers of cream detergent such as the Wings Group and sulfonation factories such as Aktif Indonesia Indah, Findeco Jaya and Rhodia Manyar.
Thin films of polyethylene and polypropylene were surface modified using liquid-phase sulfonation, a subset of these were then treated with polylysine adsorption to create surfaces with varying degrees of hydrophilicity.
The sulfonation of poly(styrene/divinylbenzene) is one of the steps in the synthesis of a carbon rich target material for the accelerator production of nitrogen-13 ammonia, a radiopharmaceutical agent used in Positron Emission Tomography.
Acylation, alkylation, alkyl lithium reactions, amidation, bromination, chlorination, cyclization, decarboxylation, electrochemistry, electrophilic substitution, esterification, fluoride exchange, hydrogenation, nucleophilic substitutions, organometallic reactions, oxidations, palladium catalyzed carbonylation, phase transfer catalysis, photochemistry, reductions, sulfonation, vapor phase catalysis.
Michel Devic, a researcher at Atochem's Rhone-Alpes R&D center, has developed a process of sulfonation in a reducing medium.
Stepan's surfactants sales volume increased in Latin America following the 2016 acquisition of Tebras Tensoativos do Brazil Uda's commercial business and PBC Industria Quimica Uda's sulfonation production facility within the greater Sao Paulo, Brazil area.
Proton conductivity as one of the main parameters of proton exchange membranes was analyzed with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for nanofibrous membrane prepared at different degrees of sulfonation and its relation with water uptake was examined.
It is understood that since 2008, the International Chemical Process Safety Technology Center has more than 200 types of reaction were risk research, such as nitration, hydrogenation, sulfonation reaction, condensation reaction, and the service project covers the pharmaceutical sector Northeast pharmaceutical and Zhejiang NHU, boron pesticide in the field of Young farmers Group, Jiangsu Bowring, Jiangxi Fuxiang, Liaoning Creative huge petrochemical, as well as sophisticated defense -10 isotope separation.
A postsulfonation method was used for further sulfonation of synthesized SPAEB copolymers to analyze the effect of degree of sulfonation to thermal stability and proton conductivity.