Mahmud II

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Mahmud II,

1784–1839, Ottoman sultan (1808–39), younger son of Abd al-Hamid IAbd al-Hamid I
or Abdülhamit
, 1725–89, Ottoman sultan (1774–89), brother and successor of Mustafa III. His reign, one of decline for the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), saw the end of the war of 1768–74 and the beginning of the war of 1787–91
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. He was raised to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) upon the deposition of his brother, Mustafa IVMustafa IV,
1778–1808, Ottoman sultan (1807–8), son of Abd al-Hamid I. He was raised to the throne by the reactionary Janissaries who had deposed Mustafa's cousin, Selim III, because they opposed his attempted reforms.
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, and continued the reforms of his cousin, Selim IIISelim III,
1761–1808, Ottoman sultan (1789–1807), nephew and successor of Abd al-Hamid I to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). He suffered severe defeats in the second of the Russo-Turkish Wars with Catherine II, but suffered no major territorial losses when
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. During his reign, the Eastern QuestionEastern Question,
term designating the problem of European territory controlled by the decaying Ottoman Empire in the 18th, 19th, and early 20th cent. The Turkish threat to Europe was checked by the Hapsburgs in the 16th cent.
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 assumed increasing importance. Mahmud inherited the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–12, which ended with Turkey's loss of BessarabiaBessarabia
, historic region, c.17,600 sq mi (45,600 sq km), largely in Moldova and Ukraine. It is bounded by the Dniester River on the north and east, the Prut on the west, and the Danube and the Black Sea on the south.
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. However, Russia was obliged to end its support of the Serbian rebels under KarageorgeKarageorge
, 1768?–1817, Serbian patriot. Born George Petrović, he was known as Karageorge, or Black George. He led the Serbs in their insurrection (1804) against the Ottomans, took (1806) Belgrade, where the Ottoman population was massacred, and was proclaimed (1808)
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, and Serbia returned (1813) to Turkish control. In 1817, Mahmud recognized MilošMiloš
or Milosh
(Miloš Obrenović) , 1780–1860, prince of Serbia (1817–39, 1858–60), founder of the Obrenović dynasty and of modern Serbia.
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 as prince of Serbia, a Turkish vassal. He suppressed (1822) the rebellion of Ali PashaAli Pasha
, 1744?–1822, Turkish pasha [military governor] of Yannina (now Ioánnina, Greece), a province of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). He was called the Arslan [lion] of Yannina.
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 and defeated the Greeks in the first phase of the Greek War of Independence. At the height of his power he ruthlessly carried out (1826) a long-cherished project—the destruction of the JanissariesJanissaries
[Turk.,=recruits], elite corps in the service of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). It was composed of war captives and Christian youths pressed into service; all the recruits were converted to Islam and trained under the strictest discipline.
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. The Turkish successes in Greece were largely due to the troops sent by the viceroy of Egypt, Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali,
1769?–1849, pasha of Egypt after 1805. He was a common soldier who rose to leadership by his military skill and political acumen. In 1799 he commanded a Turkish army in an unsuccessful attempt to drive Napoleon from Egypt.
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, under the command of Ibrahim PashaIbrahim Pasha
, 1789–1848, Egyptian general. He was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, governor of Egypt under the Ottoman Empire. Ibrahim conducted (1816–19) largely successful campaigns against the Wahhabis in Arabia.
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. British, Russian, and French intervention led to the destruction (1827) of the Egyptian fleet at Navarino, the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, a humiliating peace (see Adrianople, Treaty ofAdrianople, Treaty of,
also called Treaty of Edirne, 1829, peace treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire (see Russo-Turkish Wars). Turkey gave Russia access to the mouths of the Danube and additional territory on the Black Sea, opened the Dardanelles to all commercial
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), and the independence of GreeceGreece,
Gr. Hellas or Ellas, officially Hellenic Republic, republic (2015 est. pop. 11,218,000), 50,944 sq mi (131,945 sq km), SE Europe. It occupies the southernmost part of the Balkan Peninsula and borders on the Ionian Sea in the west, on the Mediterranean Sea
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. The sequel of the Greek war was the invasion of Turkey by Ibrahim Pasha after Mahmud had refused to give Syria to Muhammad Ali as reward for his aid against the Greeks. At Konya, the Turkish army was completely routed (1832), and Constantinople was saved only by the intervention of a Russian fleet. Mahmud was obliged to accede (1833) to Muhammad Ali's demands and, by a secret agreement with Russia, promised to close the Dardanelles to all warships hostile to Russia. In 1839, war with Egypt was resumed, and on the day of Mahmud's death, news came of the ignominious surrender of the Turkish fleet in the harbor of Alexandria. Mahmud's son and successor, Abd al-MajidAbd al-Majid
or Abdülmecit
, 1823–61, Ottoman sultan (1839–61), son and successor of Mahmud II to the throne of the Ottoman Empire. The rebellion of Muhammad Ali was checked by the intervention (1840–41) of England, Russia, and Austria.
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, granted Egypt virtual independence.

Mahmud II


(Mahmut II). Born July 20, 1784; died July 1, 1839, in Istanbul. Turkish sultan from 1808 to 1839.

Mahmud II carried out a series of reforms to overcome feudal disunity, create a centralized governmental and administrative apparatus, and bring a chiefly superficial “Europeanization” to the country. His most important reforms, implemented in the 1820’s and early 1830’s, included the abolition of the Janissary Corps, liquidation of the military fief system, establishment of ministries of the European type, elimination of the governor-generals’ right to maintain their own troops, and the establishment of some secular schools and military academies. However, these reforms failed to eliminate the root causes of the decline of the Ottoman Empire and its gradual loss of economic and political independence. The rise of the anti-Turkish national liberation movement in the Balkans and the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29 led to independence for Greece and autonomy for Serbia, Moldavia, and Walachia. Mahmud II suffered serious defeats in armed conflicts with the Egyptian pasha Muhammad Ali (in 1831-33 and 1839). Military defeats combined with the privileges granted by Mahmud II to Great Britain and France in the trade agreements of 1838 led to an increase in Turkey’s dependence upon the European powers.

References in periodicals archive ?
The current dome was built by Ottaman Sultan Mahmud II in 1818, and was first painted green in 1837, hence giving it the name, the Green Dome.
And though the charter was signed and sealed under the reign of Sultan Mahmud II, it was never implemented.
In 1228, Ottoman ruler Sultan Mahmud II reportedly renewed the dome and painted it green.
Twelve papers address such topics as: the renovations of Sultan Mahmud II in 19th-century Jerusalem, Ottoman intelligence gathering during Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and Palestine, Egyptian and Syrian Sufi views of Ottoman Turkish Sufism, middle class modes of parenting and education in 19th century Ottoman Syria, mating patterns of Istanbul's Jews in the early 19th century, Muslim-Jewish urban encounters in the Ottoman empire, and patterns of Ottoman enslavement in the Early Modern period.
The currencies issued during the rule of Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839) and Sultan Abdul Majid II (1839-1861), also bear the imprint [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Qistintiyyah) or Constantinople (Pamuk, 2001; Cezar, 2005).
Another interesting piece is a letter from Sultan Mahmud II to Prince Abbas Mirza dated 1817-18.
Beginning with a chapter that introduces the historical context of Ottoman state and society around the turn of the nineteenth century, Successive chapters explore the underlying theme of the entire late Ottoman period: the various "Ottoman responses to the challenge of modernity." This leads to further discussion of state reform efforts and societal changes under Sultan Mahmud II, those initiated during the Tanzimat era and under the Subsequent Hamidian regime, and its eventual overthrow by the Young Turks, leading to the political ascendancy of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) which lasted until the Empire's demise in WWI.
In Turkey, the fez had replaced the turban, which was banned by Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II for all but religious officials in 1829.
Of the passing of Sultan Mahmud II, the authors write: "It is said [by whom we are not told] that Mahmud drank himself to death out of unbearable pain" (p.
In any case Bouboulina hardly deserves to have an entry to herself -- even the Greek three-volume lexicon of the war of independence does not give her one -- when Sultan Mahmud II, protagonist of Turkish resistance to Greek independence, has not.
The "Imperial Feshane Factory" embodied a modernisation process launched by Sultan Mahmud II early in the 19th century to shore up a crumbling empire.
The most tragic example of this was that Sultan Mahmud II took the state banner and urged the public to revolt against the Janissary corps.