Sulu Archipelago

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Sulu Archipelago

(so͞o`lo͞o), island group, 1,086 sq mi (2,813 sq km), the Philippines, SW of Mindanao. Lying between the Celebes and Sulu seas, it includes over 900 volcanic islands and coral islets extending almost to Borneo. Basilan is the largest island, Jolo the most important. Fishing is the major source of livelihood; the Sulu Sea supplies a large proportion of the nation's commercial catch. The archipelago is also the prime source for pearls, marine turtles, seashells, and sea cucumbers. The islands are heavily forested, but local farming is nonetheless carried on and meets the needs of the people. Large quantities of manioc (a root staple) are grown.

The inhabitants are Moros, a Malayan people who were converted when Islam spread from Malaya and Borneo in the 14th and 15th cent. Formerly notorious as pirates, the Muslim Moros resisted Spanish rule until the 19th cent. The Sultanate of Sulu (est. in the 16th cent. and also including SabahSabah
, state (1991 pop. 1,736,902), 28,417 sq mi (73,600 sq km), Malaysia, N Borneo, on the South China and Sulu seas. It is bordered on the south by Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). The capital is Kota Kinabalu; other significant towns are Sandakan and Victoria.
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 in what is now Malaysia) passed to U.S. control in 1899 and continued to flourish under a mutually advantageous treaty with the United States.

In 1940 the sultanate was abolished and Sulu became part of the Philippine Commonwealth, although most Moros rejected Manila's authority. In 1976 the government reached a cease-fire agreement with Moros rebels, calling for the creation of an autonomous region including the Sulu Archipelago. However, such a region was not established until 1990. In 2019, following a referendum, the islands, except for Isabela City on Basilan, became part of the autonomous region of Bangsamoro, replaced the existing autonomous region. Some separatist militants in the area have continued to press for an independent Islamic state.

Sulu Archipelago

 

a group of islands located between the islands of Borneo and Mindanao; part of the Philippines. Population, 427,000 (1970). The Sulu Archipelago covers an area of 2,688 sq km. It extends 335 km from southwest to northeast and forms two chains and 13 island groups, including about 400 islands and reefs. The largest islands are Jolo and Tawi-Tawi. The larger islands are composed mainly of crystalline rocks; the smaller islands are coralline. The highest elevation is 790 m, on Jolo Island. The climate is humid equatorial; precipitation ranges from 2,000 to 3,200 mm per year. The islands have tropical forests. Rice, corn, and coconuts are the main crops. The population also engages in fishing and pearl diving. The capital is the town of Jolo.

Sulu Archipelago

a chain of over 500 islands in the SW Philippines, separating the Sulu Sea from the Celebes Sea: formerly a sultanate, ceded to the Philippines in 1940. Capital: Jolo. Pop.: 619 668 (2000). Area: 2686 sq. km (1037 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
There is some news on Borneo and the Philippines in Song works, especially in the Zhufan zhi (1225), and we also know of official contacts between China and Butuan (on Mindanao) under the northern Song, yet few if any Chinese ships appear to have sailed beyond Mindanao and the Sulu Islands into the Celebes Sea at that time.
Now, Brunei and the Sulu Islands competed for China's nominal protection, sending several high-ranking embassies to the court of Yongle, but private contacts between China and the outside world remained forbidden and official Chinese trade was mainly directed to Champa, Siam, western Indonesia, Malacca and the Indian Ocean.
Eastern Indonesian commodities passing through the Sulu Islands could either go to Mindoro and then to China, as was said, or they could be sent via Mindoro to Champa, or, the third option, they went to Brunei and from there to Champa, or even Siam.
Boni) "administered" or "controlled" (guan) Butuan, the Sulu Islands, Mindoro and other Philippine places.
In the case of northern Borneo and the Sulu Islands the situation was different.
It has been suggested that some Chinese, while on their way to that island, had landed not only on Gelam but also on western Borneo, settling there and gradually extending their influence to places along the northern coast of Borneo, to Palawan and parts of the Sulu Islands.
The DYZL, as was said above, contains brief chapters on Mindoro, the Sulu Islands, Borneo or Brunei, the Moluccas, the Banda Islands and Timor.
Clearly, if Xialaiwu was on northeastern Sulawesi, as Su Jiqing suggested, then direct shipments around Sabah through the Celebes Sea are possible as well, but in that case one would expect at least one or two references to these commodities in the segments on Brunei, the Sulu Islands, or other Philippine sites.
He briefly summarizes the fishing techniques in his chapter on Disan'gang (most likely Punnaikayal) - this information was probably taken from earlier sources - and he furnishes some details on the appearance of the pearls found near the Sulu Islands in the segment on this place.
Chinese junks proceeded along this route to the Sulu Islands and the Moluccas, and perhaps also to Timor.
This shift increased the importance of the Sulu Islands and northern Borneo.
It was only moderately revived after 1400 when tribute missions from Luzon, the Sulu Islands, northern Borneo and other eastern places began arriving at the court of Yongle.