In the northern celestial hemisphere the Sumerians
placed a celestial Plow, Apin, which apparently consisted of Gamma Andromedae plus our classical Triangulum, with the plow's narrow tip at Alpha Trianguli.
The three oldest perfect alphabets, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, are Sumerian
, Arabic and Hebrew, and date back to 1,500 BC'.
It was not that the Sumerians
had been forgotten; rather, they most probably never existed--or hardly so--as a conceptually distinct ethno-linguistic population in Babylonia.
With a plentiful food supply, many Sumerians
gave up their nomadic (wandering) existence.
The discoveries at Kazane Hoyuk and Tell Baidar indicate otherwise and suggest that the Sumerians
were not only responsible for establishing cities as a form of human settlement but also for spreading the idea to the rest of the Middle East and across the world.
Over the past 15 years, Schmandt-Besserat has formulated a theory favoring the gradual evolution of the first writing system, which appeared roughly 5,000 years ago among the Sumerian
people living in what is now Iran (SN: 12/24&31/88, p.
religious texts from around 2200 BC refer to a processional magur-boat sacred to Enki and say that this boat had a goat's-head prow.
The kind of myth we have in EWO consists largely of "analogical thinking" about the regular realities the ancient Sumerians
But for mapmakers, the most important feature of Sumerian
civilization can fit in the palm of your hand.
grew barley, from which beer can be made, and Sumerian
writings indicate that beer served as their "preferred fermented beverage," McGovern says.
One of the leaders in this change in the direction of research has been Herman Vanstiphout, who has spent his entire scholarly career studying Sumerian
literature as literature.
At Buto, however, Egyptians may have copied temple decorations shown to them by Sumerians
more than 5,000 years ago, suggesting "direct and complex influences at work" between the two societies, O'Connor observes.