Sumerians


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Related to Sumerians: Akkadians
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sumerians

 

an ancient people inhabiting southern Mesopotamia. Judging from the existing scanty linguistic and toponymic data, the Sumerians were not indigenous to the region, although they had inhabited it as early as the fifth millennium B.C. Anthropologically they belonged to the Mediterranean and Balkan-Caucasian races of the major Europeoid race.

In the middle of the third millennium B.C., the Sumerians began to intermix with the Akkadians, an eastern Semitic people who had settled in the northern part of southern Mesopotamia. In the second half of the second millennium B.C., the Sumerians merged with the eastern Semites into a single Akkadian people. The Sumerian language remained the language of scholarship and religion in Mesopotamia until the second or first century B.C. The Sumerians were the inventors of the first writing system in Mesopotamia, the cuneiform writing system.

REFERENCE

D’iakonov, I. M. “Narody drevnei Perednei Azii.” In Peredneaziatskii etnograficheskii sbornik, fasc. 1. Moscow, 1956.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although the peak of Sumerian civilization was some 6,000 years ago, their knowledge can be traced back to the coming of the Annunaki gods 445,000 years ago.
This trade carried not only goods but also the culture of the Sumerians and Babylonians.
Looking at Mesopotamian sculptural works from about 3300-2250 BC reveals an intimate link between Sumerian gods and the animals that symbolised and embodied their powers.
The Ur Lament is unique in the sense that it is the only Sumerian Lament that has been fully reconstructed.
"It was also described by Sumerians as an island in which the sun rises first and this is scientifically correct when considering the geographic location of Bahrain, which is observed to see sun rising before Iraq."
By the time of written records, Sumerians were using a form of bread in their fermentation process.
In his 1976 book "The 12th Planet" Sitchin attempts to translate the ancient Sumerian writings saying that they mention the existence of a 12th planet (the nine known planets, plus the Sun and the Moon) called Nibiru, which has an elliptical thousands of years long orbit around the Sun.
Instead, the Sumerian bureaucrats used different number systems depending on the nature of the objects to be counted or measured to count or measure.
Sumerians are alleged to have developed the first form of monetary economy.
ANBAR / Aswat al-Iraq: A peasant in al-Anbar handed over 18 antiquities dating back to the Sumerian era, according to an archeologist in the province on Thursday.
A 2,000-year-old Sumerian settlement was found in the southern Iraqi province of Dhiqar, Iraqi officials said.
During that time the Sumerian culture evolved in southern Mesopotamia.