Sunnism


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Sunnism

 

the principal and orthodox sect of Islam. The adherents of Sunnism, known as Sunnites or Sunni Muslims, constitute the majority of Muslim believers, except in Iran, in southern Iraq, in the Yemen Arab Republic, and in Soviet Azerbaijan and Soviet Upland Tadzhikistan. In resolving the question of who is the imam or caliph (leader) of the Muslim community, Sunnism depends formally upon “the consent of the whole community,” in contrast to Shiism, which recognizes only Ali and his direct descendants as imams or caliphs. There are four religious and juridical doctrines (madhabib) in Sunnism. Mecca and Medina are the holy cities of the Sunnites.

References in periodicals archive ?
The main architects of this resurgent Sunnism were Nizamul-Mulk, the Persian vizier of the Seljuk sultans and Al-Ghazali, the great theologian, mystic and thinker.
Their quiescence and subordination to Sunnism is over
His persistent efforts to establish a fifth official Muslim law school--however well meaning in its desire to bridge the gaps between Sunnism and Shi'ism--certainly won little support within Iran.
The Saudi government worked closely with Wahhabi ulema to build a network of seminaries, mosques, schools, activists, writers and journalists to emphasize Sunni identity, push it in the direction of militant Wahhabism, drive a wedge between Sunnism and Shiism and eliminate Iran's ideological influence.
The trend might also signal a shift in the centuries-old public perception about the respective merits of Shiism and Sunnism.
Ibadhism, a form of Islam distinct from Shi'ism and the "orthodox" schools of Sunnism, was the dominant religious sect in the country.
First, Gregorian lays the background knowledge of Islam by presenting Prophet Muhammad as the messenger of Allah, the origin of Qur'an, the formation and the spread of Islam, and the conflicts in Islam leading to the diversities of Sunnism, Shiism, and Sufism.
Its split with Sunnism relates to a dispute over who was the proper successor to Mohammed, not to differing degrees of theological rigidity or piety.
He provides a useful sketch of the complex spectrum of Islam, from Shi'ite extremism to Isma'ilism to Zaydism to Twelve Imam Shi'ism to the Four Schools of Sunnism to 'Ibadism to Wahhabism to old Khawarij to Sunni extremism.
This threat to Islam is most serious as it comes, for the first time in history, from within, through the believers themselves, whence the tone of urgency in his writings and his call and justification for the first time in orthodox Sunnism for a full-blown revolution against the existent regimes.
Assad, a member of the Alawite minority who converted into Sunnism in order to be president of predominantly-Sunni Syria in 1971, was a unique leader in the Arab World.
Ja'fari theologians in Iraq and Lebanon make the point that, like Sunnism, the Shi'ite sect (as in the case of all its branches) was founded by an Arab: the Prophet Muhammad's cousin and on-in-law Ali ibn Abu-Taleb.