The main architects of this resurgent Sunnism
were Nizamul-Mulk, the Persian vizier of the Seljuk sultans and Al-Ghazali, the great theologian, mystic and thinker.
Their quiescence and subordination to Sunnism
His persistent efforts to establish a fifth official Muslim law school--however well meaning in its desire to bridge the gaps between Sunnism
and Shi'ism--certainly won little support within Iran.
The Saudi government worked closely with Wahhabi ulema to build a network of seminaries, mosques, schools, activists, writers and journalists to emphasize Sunni identity, push it in the direction of militant Wahhabism, drive a wedge between Sunnism
and Shiism and eliminate Iran's ideological influence.
The trend might also signal a shift in the centuries-old public perception about the respective merits of Shiism and Sunnism
Ibadhism, a form of Islam distinct from Shi'ism and the "orthodox" schools of Sunnism
, was the dominant religious sect in the country.
First, Gregorian lays the background knowledge of Islam by presenting Prophet Muhammad as the messenger of Allah, the origin of Qur'an, the formation and the spread of Islam, and the conflicts in Islam leading to the diversities of Sunnism
, Shiism, and Sufism.
Its split with Sunnism
relates to a dispute over who was the proper successor to Mohammed, not to differing degrees of theological rigidity or piety.
He provides a useful sketch of the complex spectrum of Islam, from Shi'ite extremism to Isma'ilism to Zaydism to Twelve Imam Shi'ism to the Four Schools of Sunnism
to 'Ibadism to Wahhabism to old Khawarij to Sunni extremism.
This threat to Islam is most serious as it comes, for the first time in history, from within, through the believers themselves, whence the tone of urgency in his writings and his call and justification for the first time in orthodox Sunnism
for a full-blown revolution against the existent regimes.
Assad, a member of the Alawite minority who converted into Sunnism
in order to be president of predominantly-Sunni Syria in 1971, was a unique leader in the Arab World.
Ja'fari theologians in Iraq and Lebanon make the point that, like Sunnism
, the Shi'ite sect (as in the case of all its branches) was founded by an Arab: the Prophet Muhammad's cousin and on-in-law Ali ibn Abu-Taleb.