Studies in yeast reveal a necessity of either Top I or Top II in elongation, acting as replication "swivels" to relax positive supercoiling
and resolve precatenanes, respectively [9, 207-209].
Topoisomerases are essential nuclear enzymes that are involved in DNA supercoiling
regulation and play key roles in chromosome condensation, RNA transcription, DNA replication and segregation during mitosis, and attachment of DNA loops to the chromosomal scaffold and nuclear matrix .
assays were performed as described previously (11).
However, template must be amplifiable and factors that damage DNA or that make DNA less accessible, like plasmid supercoiling
(23), are likely to also lead to molecular dropout.
facilitates the assembly of active chromatin.
Topoisomerase 2 stops the DNA from supercoiling
by forming double-stranded breaks.
Whitehead et al., "Clinically relevant mutant DNA gyrase alters supercoiling
, changes the transcriptome, and confers multidrug resistance," mBio, vol.
Stock, "Crystal structure of reverse gyrase: insights into the positive supercoiling
of DNA," The EMBO Journal, vol.
Kinetic analysis of the roles of the upstream activator region and supercoiling
on transcription of the rrnB P1 promoter in vitro," Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.
The term of DNA coagulated effects (DC) means that the function of DNA gyrase was stopped from fulfilling its main core in supercoiling
the DNA during replication.
The list of IHF-binding targets supports its dual role model, i.e., an architectural role for DNA supercoiling
and DNA duplex destabilization and a regulatory role of genome functions controlling processes such as DNA replication, recombination, and the expression of a number of genes.
Effects of RNA polymerase modifications on transcription-induced negative supercoiling
and associated R-loop formation.