Superstratum

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Superstratum

 

traces in one language of a former language, which was the language of culture, government, or interethnic communication or the language of a conquering people. The term also refers to the language exerting such influence. For example, Russian has a superstratum of Old Church Slavonic and, through it, of Middle Greek; English has a superstratum of French and Latin. The influence of a superstratum is apparent chiefly in the lexicon (in borrowings and calques) and in compound sentences and other constructions that are typical of written language.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The discrepancy of the shift of frequency may be mainly caused due to the unavoidable gap between substrate and superstrate. The transmission coefficient of the two antennas was also simulated and measured as the positioned angles of dipole were altered.
Using superstrate designed with this FSS, an improvement in the measured gain of around 3 dB for the HMP with slotted ground and 2 dB for the HMP with parasitic element is reported.
The Sommefeld integral numerical evaluation is not trivial, due to some possible singularities (example when [k.sub.[rho]] matches a guided mode of the multilayer, related to a pole of the integrand), and branch and point cuts (when Im ([k.sub.mz]) = 0, condition related to radiated modes in substrate and superstrate).
Park, "Application of electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) superstrates with controllable defects for a class of patch antennas as spatial angular filters," IEEE Trans.
Pozar quoted some disadvantages posed by superstrate, and suggested the most complex mediums, such as biaxial, bi-anisotropic, or the use of an anisotropic superstrate, can have more interesting effects [12].
The addition of superstrate or cover layers can substantially enhance the gain of microstrip antenna [elements.sup.2-5] This technique, referred to as the resonance gain method, utilizes superstrates with either [[varepsilon].sub.r][greater than] 1 or [[mu].sub.r] [greater than] 1.
In the most typical (for social and historical reasons) instances of creole genesis, the lexicon comes primarily from the superstrate language, with contributions ranging from highly significant to quite marginal from the substrate language(s).
For example, Jbali seems to be changing under the superstrate influence of Cairene, as we note that 'two eyes' is enen or enen (p.
The antenna is placed on a supporting tray in the cavity, and a radome with the relative permittivity of 4 is employed as a superstrate for sealing.
Tadjalli, "Mutual coupling reduction in patch antenna arrays using a UC-EBG superstrate," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, Vol.
All cells were in the superstrate configuration, had an area of 2 [cm.sup.2], and did not have any light trapping features.
Shafai, "Investigation into the effects of the patch-type FSS superstrate on the high-gain cavity resonance antenna design," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol.