The discrepancy of the shift of frequency may be mainly caused due to the unavoidable gap between substrate and superstrate
. The transmission coefficient of the two antennas was also simulated and measured as the positioned angles of dipole were altered.
designed with this FSS, an improvement in the measured gain of around 3 dB for the HMP with slotted ground and 2 dB for the HMP with parasitic element is reported.
The Sommefeld integral numerical evaluation is not trivial, due to some possible singularities (example when [k.sub.[rho]] matches a guided mode of the multilayer, related to a pole of the integrand), and branch and point cuts (when Im ([k.sub.mz]) = 0, condition related to radiated modes in substrate and superstrate
Park, "Application of electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) superstrates
with controllable defects for a class of patch antennas as spatial angular filters," IEEE Trans.
Pozar quoted some disadvantages posed by superstrate
, and suggested the most complex mediums, such as biaxial, bi-anisotropic, or the use of an anisotropic superstrate
, can have more interesting effects .
The addition of superstrate
or cover layers can substantially enhance the gain of microstrip antenna [elements.sup.2-5] This technique, referred to as the resonance gain method, utilizes superstrates
with either [[varepsilon].sub.r][greater than] 1 or [[mu].sub.r] [greater than] 1.
In the most typical (for social and historical reasons) instances of creole genesis, the lexicon comes primarily from the superstrate
language, with contributions ranging from highly significant to quite marginal from the substrate language(s).
For example, Jbali seems to be changing under the superstrate
influence of Cairene, as we note that 'two eyes' is enen or enen (p.
The antenna is placed on a supporting tray in the cavity, and a radome with the relative permittivity of 4 is employed as a superstrate
Tadjalli, "Mutual coupling reduction in patch antenna arrays using a UC-EBG superstrate
," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, Vol.
All cells were in the superstrate
configuration, had an area of 2 [cm.sup.2], and did not have any light trapping features.
Shafai, "Investigation into the effects of the patch-type FSS superstrate
on the high-gain cavity resonance antenna design," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol.