Suppletion

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Suppletion

 

a means of making word forms and word bases from different roots. As a systemic phenomenon, suppletion is typical of Indo-European languages: examples are Russian ia-menia (“I”–“me”), Lithuanian aš-mane (“I”–“me”), and English “am”–“is.” Instances of suppletion also occur in languages of other genetic groups, for example, Afrikaans is-was (“are”–“was”), Turkish im-dir (“am”–“is”), and Finnish hyvä-parempi (“good”–“better”).

Suppletion in early periods of linguistic development (early suppletion) was caused by the establishment of lexical and grammatical linguistic categories. Later suppletion was caused by phonetic changes in roots and by semantic processes involving the attraction of different roots. The term “suppletion” is also used in a broader sense, to designate a means of word formation. Examples are French tomber-chute (“to fall”–“the fall”), Swedish stjäla-tjuv (“to steal”–“thief”), and English “good”–“well.”

REFERENCES

Konetskaia, V. P. Suppletivizm v germanskikh iazykakh. Moscow, 1973. (Contains bibliography.)
Osthoff, H. Vom Suppletivwesen der indogermanischen Sprachen. Heidelberg, 1899.
Benveniste, E. “Un Fait de supplétisme lexical en indoeuropéen.” In the collection Beiträge zur Indogermanistik und Keltologie. Innsbruck, 1967.

V. P. KONETSKAIA

References in periodicals archive ?
Suppletive Seinsverben aus jungerer Zeit finden wir auch in einigen romanischen Sprachen, in denen das lateinische Seinsverb esse und stare 'stehen' mehr oder weniger miteinander verschmolzen sind, z.
Koshiishi (2010: 1) defines a collateral adjective as a "Latinate suppletive relational adjective" (where Latinate is intended to include Greek-derived).
Like in English, NEAR in Dutch occupies a position between IN, ON and UNDER, BEHIND, FRONT, OVER: it shares the suppletive ROUTE encodings with the first group and the SOURCE and GOAL encodings with the second group.
Que les gouvernements en soient donc bien persuades: plus parfaitement sera realise l'ordre hierarchique des divers groupements selon ce principe de la fonction suppletive de toute collectivite, plus grandes seront l'autorite et la puissance sociale, plus heureuse et plus prospere l'Etat des affaires publiques (44).
L'absence de common law federale laisse le champ libre a l'application suppletive du droit prive provincial, qui fournira les ressources conceptuelles necessaires a l'interpretation.
In the inflectional paradigms of pronouns and "pro-adverbs" that historically go back to deictic elements, suppletive stem alternations are commonly encountered, cf.
In other words, as in Zeno's paradox, singularities in flight should theoretically slow their gambit to the freezing point of self-identity, but (following the rule of hysteresis) they forever fall short of arrival: "The adjunct limbs jostle to each other suppletive metric fluctuation closer to self-same but never quite, word for word parlance in the milk-run acronyms of this day.
Similarly, for Evans (2001:222) a periphrastic construction is either suppletive or 'more or less equivalent to an existing synthetic form.
The stem of the imperfective form is the G-stem active participle bayi in the third person forms (singular and plural) and the suppletive form abi in all other forms.
Dixon 1994 for the protoroles S and O) and come in three varieties: (i) as a generic incorporated noun (mainly in North American Indian and North Australian languages, see Mithun 1984: her Type 4; Evans 1996; Sands 1995), (ii) as verbal affix providing information about the animacy or shape of a nominal argument (in North American Indian and in Papuan languages, see Seiler 1985: 120-125), and (iii) as suppletive verbal stem (in North American and Tibeto-Burman languages, see Carter 1976; LaPolla 1994).
As a suppletive comparative with very high overall frequency, it might have easily undergone the loss of morphosyntactic transparency (cf.
Finalement, l'affirmation du role residuel de la common law comme source suppletive dans le Systeme de droit du Quebec est l'element decisif qui etaie l'absence de revirement jurisprudentiel.