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(so͝orəbī`ə, Du. so͞oräbä`yä), city (1990 pop. 2,473,272), capital of East Java prov., NE Java, Indonesia, on the Mas River just above its mouth at the western end of Madura Strait. Chief rival of Jakarta in size and commercial and industrial importance, Surabaya is the country's second largest city and its major naval base, with a huge shipyard, a naval college, and numerous specialized naval schools. An industrial center, it has railroad shops, an automobile-assembly plant, and an oil refinery. Manufactures include textiles, glass, fertilizer, shoes, tobacco products, machinery, metal products, processed foods, tools, and cement. North of the city proper is its port, Tanjungperak, which ships sugar, rubber, coffee, tobacco, petroleum products, and spices. Early in World War II, Surabaya was occupied by the Japanese. Although damaged during the postwar struggle for Indonesian independence, it has been rebuilt. It is the seat of a superior court and of Airlangga Univ. and the Surabaya Institute of Technology.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(or Surabaja), the second largest city in Indonesia, after the capital, Jakarta. Administrative center of the province of Eastern Java. Situated on the Kali Mas, a branch of the Brantas River, at the point where it empties into the Madura Strait. Population, 1.6 million (1971).

Surabaya is an important transportation junction, with a freight turnover of 3.7 million tons in its port (1974). It is linked with the island of Madura by a ferry. Surabaya has the largest metalworking and machine-building enterprises in the country, among which are a shipyard, an automobile assembly plant, electrotechnical enterprises, and railroad workshops. Other enterprises include petroleum refineries, chemical plants, and a plant producing glass containers. The city and its suburbs also have the food and spice, textile, leather and footwear, wood-products, and cement industries. Surabaya has a university.

Surabaya’s date of founding is unknown. In 1019, Airlangga formed an independent Eastern Javanese state in the area of Surabaya. In 1706, Surabaya came under the sway of Dutch colonialists. During the colonial war, in which the Dutch were supported by Great Britain against the Republic of Indonesia, which was proclaimed in 1945, the city was captured by British forces. In memory of the courageous resistance of Surabaya’s inhabitants to the interventionists from Nov. 10 to 25, 1945, November 10 is celebrated as Heroes’ Day in Indonesia.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


, Surabaja, Soerabaja
a port in Indonesia, on E Java on the Surabaya Strait: the country's second port and chief naval base; university (1954); fishing and ship-building industries; oil refinery. Pop.: 2 599 796 (2000)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(10) Suara Rakjat, 25-5-1957; Surabaja Pos, 26-7-1957.
(37) The PKI won 155,000 votes and 18 seats in Surabaya's municipal assembly, or almost two and a half times the votes and seats of the Nahdlatul Ulama and five times that of the PNI (Surabaja Pos, 10-8-1957).
(42) Pewarta Surabaja, 14-3-1958; Basundoro 2013:247; Husain 2015:331-2.
Within 20 minutes, the six ships were steaming south together toward Surabaja. Tension on the four-pipers evaporated, and the spirit of the US Asiatic Fleet sailors came through in a series of good-natured signals between Marblehead and Talbot's destroyers.
Throughout January 24-25, messages were transmitted to and from Surabaja as the destroyer skippers laid out their accomplishments as clearly as they could to their superiors.
presence in trouble spots and facilitate cooperation with British and Dutch forces in the event of war with Japan; abandoned his headquarters at Cavite in the Philippines and escaped to Soerabaja (Surabaja) on Java (December 25, 1941); commander of all Allied naval forces in the Far East (January 1942); he was replaced by Dutch Adm.
He had been sent to the yacht-turned-destroyer Isabel (PY-10) after his previous ship, the destroyer Stewart (DD-224), was stranded in a Surabaja dry dock and then scuttled as Japanese forces closed in on Java.
Surabaja: Komando Daerah Militer (KODAM) VIII/ Brawidjaja, Staf Umum.
The strong military warning came up as hundreds of students of the Airlangga public university in the East Java provincial capital of Surabaja clashed with 200 riot police as they staged a rally to protest Suharto's government.
In 1910, there were eleven Southeast Asian cities of more than 100,000 population: Mandalay, Rangoon, Bangkok, Hanoi, Saigon-Cholon, Georgetown, Singapore, Batavia, Surakarta, Surabaja, and Manila.(14) By and large, these cities were administrative and commercial centres with only a minimal industrial base.