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Soerabaja(so͝orəbī`ə, Du. so͞oräbä`yä), city (1990 pop. 2,473,272), capital of East Java prov., NE Java, Indonesia, on the Mas River just above its mouth at the western end of Madura Strait. Chief rival of Jakarta in size and commercial and industrial importance, Surabaya is the country's second largest city and its major naval base, with a huge shipyard, a naval college, and numerous specialized naval schools. An industrial center, it has railroad shops, an automobile-assembly plant, and an oil refinery. Manufactures include textiles, glass, fertilizer, shoes, tobacco products, machinery, metal products, processed foods, tools, and cement. North of the city proper is its port, Tanjungperak, which ships sugar, rubber, coffee, tobacco, petroleum products, and spices. Early in World War II, Surabaya was occupied by the Japanese. Although damaged during the postwar struggle for Indonesian independence, it has been rebuilt. It is the seat of a superior court and of Airlangga Univ. and the Surabaya Institute of Technology.
(or Surabaja), the second largest city in Indonesia, after the capital, Jakarta. Administrative center of the province of Eastern Java. Situated on the Kali Mas, a branch of the Brantas River, at the point where it empties into the Madura Strait. Population, 1.6 million (1971).
Surabaya is an important transportation junction, with a freight turnover of 3.7 million tons in its port (1974). It is linked with the island of Madura by a ferry. Surabaya has the largest metalworking and machine-building enterprises in the country, among which are a shipyard, an automobile assembly plant, electrotechnical enterprises, and railroad workshops. Other enterprises include petroleum refineries, chemical plants, and a plant producing glass containers. The city and its suburbs also have the food and spice, textile, leather and footwear, wood-products, and cement industries. Surabaya has a university.
Surabaya’s date of founding is unknown. In 1019, Airlangga formed an independent Eastern Javanese state in the area of Surabaya. In 1706, Surabaya came under the sway of Dutch colonialists. During the colonial war, in which the Dutch were supported by Great Britain against the Republic of Indonesia, which was proclaimed in 1945, the city was captured by British forces. In memory of the courageous resistance of Surabaya’s inhabitants to the interventionists from Nov. 10 to 25, 1945, November 10 is celebrated as Heroes’ Day in Indonesia.