Surface Runoff


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surface runoff

[′sər·fəs ′rən‚ȯf]
(hydrology)
Runoff that moves over the soil surface to the nearest surface stream.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Surface runoff

The precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water in excess of what can infiltrate the soil surface and be stored in small surface depressions; a major transporter of non-point-source pollutants in rivers, streams and lakes.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Surface Runoff

 

movement of water across the earth’s surface owing to the force of gravity. A distinction is made between sheet flow and channel flow. Sheet flow is made up of rain and meltwater and moves down slopes, without fixed channels. Channel flow occurs in definite linear directions, in the channels of rivers and bottoms of ravines and gulleys. Subterranean water and groundwater sometimes also form part of channel flow.

Surface runoff is described by the volume of water flowing across a surface (the modulus of runoff) and is expressed either as l/sec/km2 or as a depth in mm per year or some other period. In the USSR, the lowest modulus of runoff— in the arid regions of the Middle Asian plain— is 0–1 l/sec/km2, while the highest goes up to 125 l/sec/km2, in the mountains of the Western Caucasus. Surface runoff varies over time. The average annual modulus of runoff in the Vorskla River basin is 2.1 l/sec/km2, but the maximum figure, during spring high water, is 220 l/sec/km2. In the Primor’e, where the modulus of average runoff is 8-15 l/sec/km2, the maximum modulus of direct runoff reaches 600–700 l/sec/km2, and sometimes even more than 1,000 l/sec/km2.

K. G. TIKHOTSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
From the third evaluation on, differences in water loss were observed between ES and the others, indicating greater effect of vegetal cover on the reduction of surface runoff, in comparison to the type of soil tillage.
Harbor, "Urbanization impacts on surface runoff of the contiguous United States," Journal of Environmental Management, vol.
He pointed out that water surface runoff, drain water and discharge from septic tanks and kitchens from 278 acres around George Town all flowed into the Prangin Channel Ditch previously.
With reductions in green cover and water absorption into the soil, and increased surface runoff of sediment into the drains, Lahore can no longer deal with the monsoon.
Soil water erosion caused by surface runoff is more intense in areas without vegetation because the energy of the impact of raindrops disaggregates and carries soil particles more easily in these areas (Silva et al., 2010).
Basically, the main principles of eco-drainage system are to minimize surface runoff by capturing and temporarily retain it (e.g.
Therefore, it can also be said that DO depletion occurred after entering of huge surface runoff from the surface run off of previous day, and that water might have brought huge oxygen demanding matter which reduce the DO level near to zero which was the reason of fish killing.
This paper attempts to explore the challenging research area of the expansion of built environment, its trend and impacts on the increase of surface runoff generation in district Peshawar, Pakistan.
"We do need it to lessen the surface runoff when it rains because the water till seep to the ground through the permeable pavements.
Soil and water conservation practices aim at preventing surface runoff and keeping rainwater in place, whereas water harvesting makes uses of, and even induces, surface runoff.
Surface runoff and erosion depends on the type of land use applied.