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a set of structural layers of various road-surfacing materials. They are applied to a prepared earthen roadbed, usually over the width of the traffic lanes.
The main purpose of surfacing is to impart to the traffic lanes the flatness and traction qualities, over the entire period between repairs, that are required to meet planned speed and safety conditions for motor-vehicle traffic, as well as the strength and durability required for the expected composition and intensity of the traffic, and adequate resistance to climatic conditions. A distinction is made between covering layers, which impart to the surfacing the required service properties, and base layers,, which provide the necessary strength and stability of the surfacing. Surfacing may be divided into four groups according to its service characteristics and its technical and economic indicators: capital surfacing (hard and soft), surfacing with light-weight covering, surfacing of the most simple technological types, and low-grade technological surfacing (on which traffic may be interrupted during the spring).
N. N. IVANOV