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volcanic island, c.1.25 sq mi (3.2 sq km), S of Iceland in VestmannaeyjarVestmannaeyjar
, group of 15 small islands, c.10 mi (16 km) S of Iceland. In English they are known as the Westman Islands. The largest and most populous is Heimaey [home island].
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 (Westman Islands). The island was formed by the eruption (Nov., 1963) of Sutur, an underwater volcano named for a giant of Icelandic legend. For four months the fissure, estimated to be c.1,500 ft (460 m) long, emitted explosions of ash, cinders, and pumice in a column rising more than 1,000 ft (305 m). Lava flows beginning in Apr., 1964, formed a shell that helped assure the continuing existence of the island. The eruptions ended in 1967. Scientists were able to study the formation of tornadoes, waterspouts, hail, and lightning—all manifestations of the volcano itself—as well as the first evidence of life on the new island. Surtsey was designated a nature reserve in 1965.
References in periodicals archive ?
It looks as if the harbour has been there forever, whereas in fact a large chunk of it is ten years younger than even Surtsey and was added to the island's territory as a direct result of the eruption, when about 300 million cubic yards of lava and 26 million cubic yards of tephra were generously deposited on Heimaey.
The island of Surtsey was formed in the 1960s off the coast of Iceland by volcanic eruption, and within only a few months living organisms had colonized the still warm lava.
FANCESA), Cal OrckCOO, Sucre, Departamento Chuquisaca (Bolivia), an extension to the Pirin National Park (Bulgaria), The Joggins Fossil Cliffs (Canada), Mount Sanqingshan National Park (China), Lagoons of New Caledonia: Reef Diversity and Associated Ecosystems (France), Surtsey (Iceland), Bradyseism in Phlegraean Area (Italy), Saryarka Co Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan), Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (Mexico), Hovsgol Lake and its Watershed (Mongolia), C[pounds sterling]The Putorana PlateauC[yen] Nature Complex (Russian Federation), Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona (Switzerland), Socotra Archipelago (Yemen).
This activity is usually called Surtseyan, named after the eruption that formed the island of Surtsey off the south coast of Iceland.
Environmental scientist Fridriksson was there, and started investigating the colonization of life on Surtsey right at the beginning, and has continued for four decades.
1963 Off the coast of Iceland the island of Surtsey was born, through the eruption of an underwater volcano.
Just a few years earlier, the world's newest island, Surtsey, had emerged abruptly in the Westman configuration and become a kind of natural laboratory, in which the coming of life could be observed taking place.
With the birth of Surtsey, an island just off the coast of the mainland, from a volcanic eruption that began on the ocean floor, it is evident just why Iceland is referred to as "a land in the making.
1963: Off the coast of Iceland, the island of Surtsey was born, through the eruption of an underwater volcano.
Also on This Day:1840: Birth of French impressionist Claude Monet; 1896: The speed limit for motor vehicles in Britain was raised from 4mph to 14mph; 1940: German bombing destroyed Coventry's medieval cathedral; 1963: The Iceland island of Surtsey was born through a volcanic eruption; 1973: Princess Anne married Captain Mark Phillips; 1994: The National Lottery was launched.
Thus, to cite some earlier works, the striking dockworkers of Liverpool, the subject of his 1997 film (transferred to video), Whi te Wall Travelling, take their place among quite different realities--for instance the isle of Surtsey, situated to the south of the Icelandic coast, which suddenly appeared one day in 1963 following an underwater volcanic eruption: the birth of a new land.
Erosion is reportedly rapidly decreasing the size of the volcanic island Surtsey.