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surveysee SOCIAL SURVEY, SURVEY METHOD.
in architecture), the precise measurement of all elements of an architectural structure or complex, with subsequent recording of their dimensions on a blueprint. The survey is one of the principal sources for the restoration or reconstruction of an architectural work. In the study of architecture, a survey is important for the analysis of the principles of construction of architectural forms.
(also poll), a method used in social research to collect primary information. The purpose of a survey is to acquire objective and/or subjective (opinions, attitudes) information through the response of the person being polled. Polling was first used in the second half of the 19th century in population censuses and in various statistical surveys. Social research regularly makes use of sample surveys of the population.
A survey can have various purposes. In early stages of research it is used to derive working hypotheses. It is one of the basic methods for collecting data in studies of public opinion, consumer demand, and so forth. It is also used to supplement data obtained by other methods, such as analysis of statistical materials, examination of official and personal documents, and observation. There are two basic survey techniques: question-nairing and interviewing.